India Map

Explore the map of India showing Indian states, major cities, rivers, airports, mountain peaks, national parks, national capital New Delhi with state and country boundaries.

India Map



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About India Map



Explore map of India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the 2nd most populous country, the 7th largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world.

India

India, the world's largest democracy, is known for its rich cultural heritage and diversity. With a population exceeding 1.4 billion, it is also the second most populous country globally. India spans an area of approximately 3.287 million square kilometers, making it the seventh-largest country by land area. Economically, India boasts one of the fastest-growing major economies, with a nominal GDP of around $3 trillion in 2022.

The country is divided into 28 states and 8 Union territories, each with its own unique traditions, languages, and cuisines. Hindi and English are the official languages, but there are 22 officially recognized regional languages, reflecting its linguistic diversity. India is also home to multiple key religions, including Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

Agriculture plays a significant role in India's economy, contributing about 15.4% to the GDP and employing around 42% of the workforce. Key agricultural products include rice, wheat, pulses, and spices. Additionally, India is renowned for its technology and service sectors, particularly in IT and software services, which have positioned the country as a global IT hub.

Education in India has been strengthening, with a literacy rate of around 77.7% as per the latest census. Institutes like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are globally recognized for their excellence.

India's geographical landscape is as diverse as its culture, from the Himalayan mountain range in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. The country also has significant biodiversity, with several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries like the Jim Corbett National Park and Kaziranga National Park.

History



Ancient India

Ancient India, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, offers a tapestry of historical, cultural, and social intricacies. Flourishing thanks to the Indus Valley Civilization around 2500 BCE, Ancient India was a hub of advanced urban planning, evident in cities like Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These urban areas featured sophisticated drainage systems, granaries, and standardized weights and measures.

The Rigveda, one of the oldest known texts in the world, written around 1500 BCE, sheds light on the early Vedic period, revealing details about their gods, rituals, and society. During the Maurya and Gupta periods (322 BCE - 550 CE), the subcontinent experienced significant advancements in science, mathematics, astronomy, and literature. Figures like Chanakya, known for his treatise "Arthashastra," and Aryabhata, famous for his work in mathematics and astronomy, contributed immensely to their fields.

The social structure in Ancient India was organized into a hierarchical system known as the Varna System, which eventually evolved into the caste system. These ancient texts also discuss complex philosophical ideas and spiritual pursuits, leading to the rise of major religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Architectural marvels such as the Ashoka Pillar and the Ajanta and Ellora caves stand testament to the artistic and architectural ingenuity of this period.

Medieval India

Medieval India, spanning from the 5th to the 16th century CE, was marked by a rich tapestry of cultural and political transformations. The subcontinent saw the rise and fall of several significant dynasties, including the Gupta, Chola, and Mughal empires. The Gupta Empire (circa 320-550 CE) is often hailed as a golden age of Indian culture, noted for advancements in science, mathematics, and astronomy. Aryabhata, an eminent mathematician and astronomer of this era, made critical contributions such as the approximation of pi and the concept of zero.

The Chola Dynasty, ruling from the 9th to the 13th centuries, is renowned for its notable achievements in architecture and art. The Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur, a UNESCO World Heritage site, exemplifies the architectural ingenuity of the Cholas, featuring detailed murals and massive, intricately carved pillars. In the later medieval period, the Mughal Empire, established in 1526 by Babur, brought about an era of significant economic prosperity and cultural amalgamation. Under Akbar the Great (reigned 1556-1605), a policy of religious tolerance was promoted, leading to a synthesis of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles, exemplified by the construction of the Fatehpur Sikri, a city which served as the capital for a period.

The period also saw the emergence of regional languages and literature, with texts being written in Sanskrit, Persian, and regional dialects like Tamil and Kannada. Prominent works include the Sanskrit play "Shakuntala" by Kalidasa and the Persian memoir "Baburnama" by Babur. This era's multifaceted developments in religion, art, and architecture continue to influence contemporary Indian culture and society. These historical facts and observations highlight the diverse and profound legacy of medieval India.

Early Modern India

Early modern India, spanning from the late 15th century to the early 18th century, was a period of significant transformation marked by the decline of medieval structures and the rise of new political, social, and economic orders. This era witnessed the ascent of the Mughal Empire, which, at its zenith under rulers like Akbar the Great, encompassed almost the entire subcontinent. The administrative and fiscal systems of the Mughals, notably the Mansabdari system and the revenue collection methods introduced by Akbar and further refined by his successors, played a crucial role in the empire's stability and prosperity.

Economic activity during this period flourished due to the extensive network of trade routes. Indian commodities such as textiles, spices, and indigo were highly sought after in European markets, fostering commercial links with foreign traders, including the Portuguese, Dutch, and English. The establishment of trading posts and factories by the British East India Company in the early 17th century marked the beginning of a new economic and colonial phase which would profoundly impact the subcontinent in subsequent centuries.

Culturally, early modern India was a melting pot of diverse influences. The Mughals were instrumental in the proliferation of Persian art, literature, and architecture. Iconic structures like the Taj Mahal, built by Emperor Shah Jahan, stand as enduring symbols of this era's architectural ingenuity. Additionally, the synthesis of Hindu and Muslim traditions led to the evolution of unique art forms and cultural practices.

Social structures in early modern India were complex and varied across regions. The caste system continued to be a defining feature, influencing various facets of daily life and social interactions. Meanwhile, rural and urban life saw developments; bustling cities like Delhi, Lahore, and Agra became centers of political power and cultural activity.

This period laid the groundwork for significant changes that followed in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the rise of British influence and eventual colonization, which would dramatically reshape India's history and trajectory.

Modern India

Modern India stands at the intersection of rapid economic growth and profound sociocultural change. With a population surpassing 1.4 billion, India is the world's most populous country and holds a demographic dividend that could drive the nation's development forward. In 2022, India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) crossed $3 trillion, making it the fifth-largest economy globally. The country has also seen a remarkable rise in its technology sector, with Bengaluru often dubbed the "Silicon Valley of India," contributing significantly to the global IT market.

Education, another cornerstone of modern India, has experienced substantial improvements. As per the 2021 Census, the literacy rate had escalated to 77.7%, demonstrating considerable progress over the past decades. Furthermore, India is home to prestigious institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), which are recognized for their excellence worldwide.

Healthcare has also seen advancements, with the launch of initiatives such as the Ayushman Bharat scheme, aimed at providing affordable healthcare to millions of low-income families. The program underscores India's commitment to improving its healthcare infrastructure and accessibility.

In terms of infrastructure, India has made noteworthy strides with projects like the Golden Quadrilateral and the Smart Cities Mission, designed to modernize urban spaces and make them more sustainable. These initiatives reflect a holistic approach to development that prioritizes economic growth, technological advancement, and sustainability.

Despite significant progress, challenges remain, such as income inequality, environmental concerns, and ensuring equal opportunities for all citizens. Addressing these issues will be pivotal for India's continued journey toward becoming a global powerhouse.

Geography

India, the seventh-largest country in the world, boasts a diverse and expansive geography that includes a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. Spanning 3.287 million square kilometers, India is bordered by countries such as Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, along with coastlines along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The northern region is dominated by the mighty Himalayas, which house some of the world's tallest peaks, including Kanchenjunga, which stands at 8,586 meters.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, one of the most fertile regions in the world, lies south of the Himalayas and extends from Punjab in the west to West Bengal in the east. This plain is nourished by significant rivers like the Ganges, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra. Moving further south, the Deccan Plateau occupies much of the southern part of the country. This plateau is flanked by the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, two mountain ranges that run parallel to the coasts and are known for their rich biodiversity.

India's climatic conditions range from tropical in the south to more temperate in the north, with the country experiencing a variety of seasons, including the monsoon, which significantly impacts agriculture. The vast Thar Desert in the northwest experiences arid conditions, while regions like Kerala in the southwest receive heavy rainfall. This geographical diversity not only shapes India's climate but also significantly influences the flora, fauna, and agricultural practices across the country.

Economy

The economy of India is a complex and rapidly evolving landscape, positioning it as a significant player on the global stage. As of 2023, India is the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP, with an estimated GDP of $3.5 trillion. The country’s economic growth has been driven by a diverse mix of agriculture, manufacturing, and services. Agriculture accounts for about 16% of GDP and employs nearly half of the workforce. The manufacturing sector contributes approximately 29% to the GDP, with industries such as textiles, chemicals, and electronics playing pivotal roles.

India's services sector is a standout performer, contributing around 55% to the GDP. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, and banking, with the IT sector alone making up about 8% of GDP. The country is also a prominent player in global trade, with exports valued at $420 billion in 2022, dominated by petroleum products, gems, jewelry, and pharmaceuticals.

Additionally, India has made significant strides in financial inclusion, with initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, which has brought millions into the formal banking system. However, the economy faces challenges such as income inequality, unemployment, and infrastructural bottlenecks. In addressing these, the government has launched several initiatives like 'Make in India' to boost manufacturing and 'Digital India' to improve digital infrastructure. The Reserve Bank of India's monetary policies and various fiscal measures continue to play a critical role in maintaining economic stability and fostering growth.

India's economic trajectory signifies both immense potential and complex challenges, underlining the importance of robust policy frameworks and strategic investments in human capital and infrastructure to sustain growth momentum.

States and Union Territories of India

India is a union of 28 states and 8 Union Territories, each with its distinct cultural heritage, languages, and governance. The states, which possess their own governments, have broader legislative powers, whereas Union Territories are directly governed by the Central Government. Among the prominent states, Maharashtra is noted for its economic might with Mumbai as the financial capital. Tamil Nadu stands out with its ancient Dravidian heritage and burgeoning IT industry. Uttar Pradesh is renowned for its historical landmarks, including the Taj Mahal.

In contrast, Union Territories like Delhi, which serves as the national capital, combine modern infrastructure with historic landmarks like the Red Fort. Chandigarh, a Union Territory, serves as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana and is recognized for its distinctive architecture by Le Corbusier. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are famed for their pristine beaches and marine biodiversity, making them a crucial asset to India's tourism.

Each state and Union Territory contributes uniquely to the nation's diversity and development. From the cultural richness of Rajasthan to the technological advancements in Karnataka, these regions embody the multifaceted progress of India.

List of Indian States and Union Territories

S.N.StateVehicle codeZoneCapitalLargest cityStatehoodPopulationArea (km2)Official languagesAdditional official languages
1Andhra PradeshAPSouthernAmaravatiVisakhapatnam1 November 195649,506,799160,205Telugu-
2Arunachal PradeshARNorth-EasternItanagarItanagar20 February 19871,383,72783,743English-
3AssamASNorth-EasternDispurGuwahati26 January 195031,205,57678,550AssameseBengali, Bodo
4BiharBREasternPatnaPatna 104,099,45294,163HindiUrdu
5ChhattisgarhCGCentralNava RaipurRaipur1 November 200025,545,198135,194HindiChhattisgarhi
6GoaGAWesternPanajiVasco da Gama30 May 19871,458,5453,702KonkaniMarathi
7GujaratGJWesternGandhinagarAhmedabad1 May 196060,439,692196,024Gujarati-
8HaryanaHRNorthernChandigarhFaridabad1 November 196625,351,46244,212HindiPunjabi
9Himachal PradeshHPNorthernShimla (Summer), Dharamshala (Winter)Shimla25 January 19716,864,60255,673HindiSanskrit
10JharkhandJHEasternRanchiJamshedpur15 November 200032,988,13474,677HindiSantali, Urdu
11KarnatakaKASouthernBengaluruBengaluru1 November 195661,095,297191,791Kannada-
12KeralaKLSouthernThiruvananthapuramKochi1 November 195633,406,06138,863Malayalam-
13Madhya PradeshMPCentralBhopalIndore26 January 195072,626,809308,252Hindi-
14MaharashtraMHWesternMumbai (Summer), Nagpur (Winter)Mumbai1 May 1960112,374,333307,713Marathi-
15ManipurMNNorth-EasternImphalImphal21 January 19722,855,79422,347MeiteiEnglish
16MeghalayaMLNorth-EasternShillongShillong21 January 19722,966,88922,720EnglishKhasi
17MizoramMZNorth-EasternAizawlAizawl20 February 19871,097,20621,081English, Hindi, Mizo-
18NagalandNLNorth-EasternKohimaDimapur1 December 19631,978,50216,579English-
19OdishaODEasternBhubaneswarBhubaneswar26 January 195041,974,218155,820Odia-
20PunjabPBNorthernChandigarhLudhiana1 November 196627,743,33850,362Punjabi-
21RajasthanRJNorthernJaipurJaipur26 January 195068,548,437342,269HindiEnglish
22SikkimSKNorth-EasternGangtokGangtok16 May 1975610,5777,096English, NepaliBhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
23Tamil NaduTNSouthernChennaiChennai1 November 195672,147,030130,058TamilEnglish
24TelanganaTSSouthernHyderabadHyderabad2 June 201435,193,978114,840TeluguUrdu
25TripuraTRNorth-EasternAgartalaAgartala21 January 19723,673,91710,492Bengali, English, Kokborok-
26Uttar PradeshUPCentralLucknowKanpur26 January 1950199,812,341243,286HindiUrdu
27UttarakhandUKCentralGairsain (Summer), Dehradun (Winter)Dehradun9 November 200010,086,29253,483HindiSanskrit
28West BengalWBEasternKolkataKolkata26 January 195091,276,11588,752Bengali, NepaliHindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Urdu


Union Territories of India

S.N.Union territoryVehicle codeZoneCapitalLargest cityUT establishedPopulationArea (km2)Official languagesAdditional official languages
1Andaman and Nicobar IslandsANSouthernPort BlairPort Blair1 November 1956380,5818,249English, HindiBengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu
2ChandigarhCHNorthernChandigarh1 November 19661,055,450114English, Hindi, Punjabi-
3Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuDDWesternDamanDaman26 January 2020586,956603English, Gujarati, HindiKonkani, Marathi
4DelhiDLNorthernNew Delhi1 November 195616,787,9411,490English, HindiPunjabi, Urdu
5Jammu and KashmirJKNorthernSrinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)Srinagar31 October 201912,258,43355,538English, Hindi, UrduDogri, Kashmiri
6LadakhLANorthernLeh (Summer), Kargil (Winter)Leh31 October 2019290,492174,852English, Ladakhi, UrduBalti, Purgi
7LakshadweepLDSouthernKavarattiKavaratti1 November 195664,47332English, Malayalam-
8PuducherryPYSouthernPondicherryPondicherry16 August 19621,247,953492English, TamilMalayalam, Telugu


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