United States Map with Capitals

Here is a list of American capital cities that have served or serve as state capitals, country capitals, capitals of territories of the U.S., unincorporated U.S. areas capitals, colonial capitals, and capitals of Native America.

Washington, D.C. (formally the District of Columbia), has been the national capital of the U.S. since 1800. Every state of the United States of America has their own capital, as do its insular areas have. Most states of the U.S. have not switched their capital since admission to the Union, but the capitals of their corresponding prior kingdoms, territories, colonies, and republics commonly altered many times. There are other governments in the present boundaries of America with their individual capital cities, like the Native American Tribal nations in the U.S., Republic of Texas, and other anonymous governments.

United States Map with Capitals in Albers Equal Area Projection

US States and Capitals Map in Mercator Projection ( US Map )

About United States Map with Capitals or US Map

The above US states and capitals maps are showing all the 50 states of United States of America with their state capitals and national capital Washington D.C..

US States and Capitals

The United States comprises 50 states and every state has a capital. The capital of each state serves as its seat of government and is home to many government buildings. Of these 50 states, 25 states of the U.S. have changed their capitals at least once. Ten states belong to the group of the thirteen original states. Oklahoma was the last U.S. state to change its capital. In 1910, Oklahoma moved its capital from Guthrie to Oklahoma City.

The ‘Capital Since’ column in the following table list the years when that particular city became the capital of the state.

S.N.StateAbr.State-hoodCapitalArea (mi²)Capital sinceCapital Population (2019 est.)Population Rank in State (City Proper)
1New MexicoNM1912Santa Fe37.3161084,6834
6New JerseyNJ1787Trenton7.66178483,20310
7South CarolinaSC1788Columbia125.21786131,6742
9North CarolinaNC1789Raleigh114.61792474,0692
10New YorkNY1788Albany21.4179796,4606
12New HampshireNH1788Concord64.3180843,4123
15ArkansasAR1836Little Rock116.21821197,3121
19MissouriMO1821Jefferson City27.3182642,83815
28MinnesotaMN1858Saint Paul52.81849308,0962
33IowaIA1846Des Moines75.81857214,2371
34UtahUT1896Salt Lake City109.11858200,5671
35NevadaNV1864Carson City143.4186155,9166
43LouisianaLA1812Baton Rouge76.81880220,2362
44North DakotaND1889Bismarck26.9188373,5292
45West VirginiaWV1863Charleston31.6188546,5361
47South DakotaSD1889Pierre13188913,6468
48Rhode IslandRI1790Providence18.51900179,8831
50OklahomaOK1907Oklahoma City620.31910655,0571

Capital of Insular Areas

Insular area or Isolated area is a US territory or region that is not either a part or region of 1 of the 50 U.S. states and nor a region of the DC (District of Columbia), the US's national capital. Those isolated or insular territories with their capitals are mentioned below.

Capitals of US Insular Areas

S.N.AbbreviationInsular Areas NameCapitalsCapital SincePopulation (2010)
1PRPuerto RicoSan Juan18983,95,326
2MPNorthern Mariana IslandsSaipan194748,220
3VIU.S. Virgin IslandsCharlotte Amalie191718,481
4ASAmerican SamoaPago Pago18993,656

Capitals of United States

According to the Articles of Confederation, which came into force on March 1, 1781, the U.S. did not have a stable capital. The cities mentioned below were those places where the colonial American congresses held their meetings. The present Constitution of the United States was authorized in 1787. The constitution bestowed upon the Congress the authority to exercise ‘absolute constitution upon a commune that was to the the United States government’s seat of power. This was to be after cession of a few particular states and the recognition of the Congress.

The meeting of the first Congress took place in New York in Federal Hall. The Residence Act was passed in 1790. As per this act, the country capital was to be established at a place near the Potomac River. This place came to be known as Washington D.C. But for the afterward 10 years, i.e.. until 1800, Philadelphia, was the short-lived capital of the United States and the meetings took place at the Congress Hall. On 17th November, 1800, the Congress moved from Philadelphia to Washington D.C and formally convened in the new capital. Since then the Congress has held all its meetings in Washington D.C, except on two occasions. On 16th July, 1987, it met at Philadelphia’s Independence Hall. The occasion commemorated the 200th commemoration of the constitution’s ratification. On September 6, 2002, it met at the New York’s Federal Hall National Memorial. It marked September 11 attacks first anniversary.

From 1754 to 1819, Congress met in numerous locations; therefore, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital.

Capital CityBuilding NameState NameDate (Start)Date (End)Governing Body
AlbanyStadt HuysNew York19-Jun-175411-Jul-1754Albany Congress
New YorkCity HallNew York7-Oct-176525-Oct-1765Stamp Act Congress
PhiladelphiaCarpenters' HallPennsylvania5-Sep-177426-Oct-1774First Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania10-May-177512-Dec-1776Second Continental Congress
BaltimoreHenry Fite HouseMaryland20-Dec-177627-Feb-1777Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania5-Mar-177718-Sep-1777Second Continental Congress
LancasterCourt HousePennsylvania27-Sep-177727-Sep-1777Second Continental Congress
YorkCourt HousePennsylvania30-Sep-177727-Jun-1778Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaCollege Hall[citation needed]Pennsylvania2-Jul-17781-Mar-1781Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania2-Mar-178121-Jun-1783Congress of the Confederation
PrincetonNassau HallNew Jersey30-Jun-17834-Nov-1783Congress of the Confederation
AnnapolisMaryland State HouseMaryland26-Nov-178319-Aug-1784Congress of the Confederation
TrentonFrench Arms TavernNew Jersey1-Nov-178424-Dec-1784Congress of the Confederation
New YorkCity HallNew York11-Jan-17856-Oct-1788Congress of the Confederation
New YorkFederal HallNew York4-Mar-17895-Dec-1790United States Congress
PhiladelphiaCongress HallPennsylvania6-Dec-179014-May-1800United States Congress
District of ColumbiaUnited States Capitol-17-Nov-180024-Aug-1814United States Congress
Washington, D.C.Blodgett's Hotel-19-Sep-18147-Dec-1815United States Congress
Washington, D.C.Old Brick Capitol-4-Dec-18153-Mar-1819United States Congress
Washington, D.C.United States Capitol-4-Mar-1819presentUnited States Congress

The United States of America

The United States, which is located in North America, is the world’s fourth largest country. Covering an area of approximately 3,796,742 square miles, the United States is composed of 50 states and the federal district of Washington D.C, which is the capital of the country. Of these 50 states, 48 are contiguous and are located between the nations of Canada and Mexico. The other two states are Alaska and Hawaii. While Alaska is located in the northwestern part of North America, Hawaii is located in the mid-Pacific and is an archipelago.

Among these, Alaska is the largest state of the country. The state comprises an area of 665,384 square miles. Meanwhile, the state of Rhode Island, which is located in the New England region of the northeastern United States, is the smallest in terms of area. It covers an area of just 1,545 square miles.

Comprising a population of approximately 39,512,223 people, California is the most populous state of the country, while Wyoming is the least populous with 578,759 people residing in the state.

Delaware, which is situated in the northeastern regions of the United States, was one of the original 13 colonies that took part in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware ratified the Constitution, becoming the first state to do so. The past two centuries have witnessed many other states joining the Union and the most recent case is that of Hawaii. Hawaii was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959.

The U.S. contains 50 states, 1 federal district, 326 Indian reservations, 5 major unincorporated areas, and few small possessions. In terms of total area, the United States is the fourth largest nation in the world. The USA comprises 3.8 million sq mi or 9.8 million sq km. The United States accord significantly large land borders with Canada and Mexico. Moreover, it shares defined maritime borders with countries like the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia. The USA has a population of more than .331 billion residents, which makes it the 3rd most populous nation in the world. New York City is the most populous city and the national capital is Washington D.C..

12,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland from Siberia. In the 16th century, European colonization commenced. The United States evolved from the thirteen British colonies set up along the East Coast. The American Revolutionary War, which took place from 1775 and lasted till 1783, happened because of disputes over taxation and political representation with Great Britain. The American War brought independence to the USA. In the late 18th century, the USA began expanding its territories across North America. It gradually obtained new territories, at times through war. These small wars also resulted in the displacement of the Native Americans. The USA also formed new states by expanding its total area. Slavery was legal in the Southern United States till the second half of the 19th century. There are two wars that made the USA superior in the world. The Spanish-American war and the First World War propelled the USA to the top of the list of powerful countries.

During the Cold War, the United States fought the Korean War. However, it avoided direct military confrontation with the Soviet Union. Both the Soviet Union and the USA competed in the space race. In 1969, the first spaceflight was able to land humans on the moon. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 ended the Cold War. In other words, the USA emerged as the sole superpower of the world.

The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It comprises three separate government branches, which also includes a bicameral legislature. The USA is the founding member of the United Nations, IMF, NATO, World Bank, and other international organizations. It is also the primary member of the United Nations Security Council. The USA is regarded as the melting point of ethnicities and cultures. The population of the USA has been dramatically influenced by centuries of immigration. The nation ranks relatively high in international measures of quality of life, economic freedom, human rights, low corruption levels, and education. On the contrary, the United States has received inequality on the basis of wealth, income, and race. The USA has higher rates of capital punishment, incarceration, and a lack of universal healthcare.

The USA is a highly developed nation and accounts for approximately a quarter of the global GDP. It is also the world’s largest economy by GDP along with market exchange values. In terms of value, the USA is the world’s largest importer and second-largest exporter of goods. The population of the USA is only 4.2% of the world’s total population. However, it still holds 29.4% of the natural wealth in the world. In simple words, it is the most significant share held by any nation. This also makes the United States the most enormous military power in the world. The USA is also a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.

Facts about United States of America

Facts about US
Chief JusticeJohn Roberts
GovernmentFederal Presidential Constitutional Republic
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (Democratic Party)
Lower HouseHouse of Representatives
PresidentJoe Biden (Democratic Party)
Upper HouseSenate
Vice PresidentKamala Harris (Democratic Party)
ConfederationMarch 1, 1781
ConstitutionJune 21, 1788
DeclarationJuly 4, 1776
Independence fromGreat Britain
Last State AdmittedAugust 21, 1959
Treaty of ParisSeptember 3, 1783
Total Area3,796,742 square miles (9,833,520 square kilometers)
Total Land Area3,531,905 square miles (9,147,590 square kilometers)
Water (%)4.66%
GDP (Nominal) 2022 EstimateTotal: $24.8 Trillion, GDP Per Capita: $74,725
GDP (PPP) 2022 EstimateTotal: $24.8 Trillion, GDP Per Capita: $74,725
Gini (2020)48.5
HDI (2019)0.926
Highest PointDenali 6,190 meters (Mount McKinley) (highest point in the continent of North America)
Lowest PointDeath Valley (lowest point in the continent of North America) -86 meters
Mean Elevation760 meters
AnthemThe Star-Spangled Banner
Birth Rate (2021 estimate)12.33 births/1,000 population
Border CountriesCanada 8,891 kilometers (including 2,475 kilometers with Alaska), Mexico 3,111 kilometers
Calling Code+1
CapitalWashington, D.C.
Coastline19,924 kilometers
CurrencyU.S. Dollar ($) or USD
Death Rate (2021 estimate)8.35 deaths/1,000 population
Driving SideRight
Education Expenditures5% of GDP
Ethnic Groups (2020)By Race: 61.6% White, 12.4% Black, 6.0% Asian, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 10.2% Multiracial and 8.4% Other; By Hispanic or Latino Origin: 81.3% Non-Hispanic or Latino, 18.7% Hispanic or Latino
Geographic Coordinates38 00 N, 97 00 W
Internet Country Code.us
Irrigated Land264,000 square kilometers
ISO 3166 CodeUS
Land BoundariesTotal: 12,002 kilometers
Land UseAgricultural Land: Total: 44.5%, Arable Land: 16.8%, Permanent Crops: 0.3%, Permanent Pasture: 27.4% ; Forest: 33.3% ; and Other: 22.2%
Largest CityNew York City
MottoIn God We Trust
National LanguageEnglish (de facto)
National Symbol(s)Bald Eagle ; National Colors: Red, White, Blue
Population2021 Estimate: 331,893,745 ; 2020 Census: 331,449,281 ; Population Density: 87/sq mi (33.6/km2)
Religion (2021)63% Christianity, 40% Protestantism, 21% Catholicism, 2% Other Christian, 28% No religion, 6% Other, 2% Unanswered
Time ZoneUTC-4 to -12, +10, +11 ; Summer (DST): UTC-4 to -10
Date Formatmm/dd/yyyy
Net Migration Rate (2021 estimate)3.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population

History of the United States

The history of the U.S. was preceded by the landing of Native Americans in the continent of North America about 15,000 BC. Various indigenous civilizations developed, and numerous departed in the 1500s. The advent of Christopher Columbus in 1492 initiated the European settlement of the Americas. Maximum settlements were established after 1600, and the U.S. was the 1st country whose most far ancestors are completely documented. By the 1760s, the 13 British settlements or colonies consisted of 2.5 million humans on the Coast of Atlantic east of the Mountains of Appalachian. After overthrowing France, British rule enforced a set of taxes, along with the 1765 Stamp Act, denying the colonists' constitutional debate that recent taxes required their endorsement. Refusal to these new taxes, specifically the 1773 Boston Tea Party, got to Parliament declaring punishing laws formed to stop self-government. Armed combat began in 1775 in Massachusetts.

In Philadelphia, in 1776, the 2nd Continental Congress announced the independence of the settlements or colonies as the "U.S.". Managed by a General named George Washington, it conquered the Revolutionary War. The reconciliation treaty of 1783 formed the borders of the new country. The Confederation Articles settled a central government, though it was futile at giving strength as it could not gather taxes and had no governing officer. A council wrote a different Constitution that was followed in 1789 and a Bill of new Rights was further added to the Constitution in 1791 to assure basic rights. With George Washington as the 1st president with his chief adviser Alexander Hamilton, a stable central government was formed. Acquirement of the Territory of Louisiana in 1803 from France doubled the area of the U.S..

Determined by the concept of unmistakable destiny, the U.S. widened to the Pacific Coast. While the United States was extensive in terms of total area. In 1790, its population was only four million. The population increased expeditiously and the growth of the economy was even greater. In comparison to European powers, the United State’s military power was comparatively finite in peacetime before 1940. The Westernmost spread was guided by a pursuit for low-cost land for servant farmers and slaveholders. The development of slavery was progressively contentious and inflamed constitutional and political wars, which were settled by compromises. Bondage or slavery was eradicated in all U.S. states north of the line of Mason–Dixon by 1804, though the South maintained the slavery, majorly for the manufacturing of cotton. Abraham Lincoln was voted-in as a president of U.S. in 1860 on a podium of stopping the spread of slavery. 7 slave states from the south rebelled and established the base of the Confederacy. In 1861 a strike on a federal fort initiated a Civil War. The collapse of the Confederates in 1865 got to the abrogation of slavery. In the Reorganization age after the war, constitutional and voting powers were elongated to discharged slaves. The United State’s government developed much more stable and stronger, and had a definite duty to save everyone's rights. Nonetheless, when white people from the South returned to their power in 1877, generally by paramilitary elimination of voting, they created Jim Crow acts to preserve white dominance, along with new depriving state laws that stopped maximum African Americans and various Poor Whites from balloting.

The U.S. developed into the world's top industrial and economic power at the change of the 20th century, as a result of an eruption of industrialization and entrepreneurship and the arrival of lots of immigrant laborers and farmers. A country-wide railroad system was finished and a large number of mines and industries were settled. Huge disapproval with corruption, incapability, and old politics accelerated the Progressive evolution, from 1890s to 1920s, leading to transformations, together with the governmental income tax, straightforward balloting of Senators, liquor restriction, and women's right to vote. Originally uninvolved amid World War I, in 1917, the U.S. announced war on Germany and financed the Allied triumph the next year. Later in the wealthy booming Twenties, the Crash of Wall Street in 1929 noted as the beginning of the decade-long global Great Depression. The president of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt executed his New Deal set of programs, along with help for the jobless, assistance for agriculturist, Social Security, and a minimum salary. The New Deal exemplified present American liberalism. In 1941, after the Japan’s strike on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. began to be involved in World War II and funded the alliance determined war attempt, and assisted beating Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Its participation later reached a climax using freshly developed nuclear weapons on 2 Japan’s cities to beat Japan in the Pacific War.

The U.S. and the Soviet Union developed as rival powerful nations in the outcome of World War II. At the time of the Cold War, the 2 nations stood up to each other discursively in the arms chase, the Space chase, biased or misleading campaigns, and confined wars against the expansion of communist. In the 1960s, in huge part because of the power of the civil rights evolution or movement, one more stream of social reforms was executed which imposed the essential authority of voting and freedom of evolution to African Americans and more minorities affected with racism. In 1991, the Cold War finished with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, allowing the U.S. as the only global superpower. Foreign strategy and policy following the Cold War has centralized on current disagreements in the Middle East, specifically in reply to the September 11 strikes and the growth of the Levant and Iraq's Islamic State. At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. was involved in the Great Recession and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, followed by a lower percentage of economic success amid these eras.

Geography of the United States

The forty-eight adjoining states and the District of Columbia hold an total area of 3,119,885 square miles (8,080,470 square kilometers). Out of this, 2,959,064 sq mi (7,663,940 km2) is contiguous land, this is 83.65% of the total land area of the United States. Hawaii, covering an archipelago in the central Pacific, south-west of the continent of North America, is 28,311 km2 (10,931 square miles) in area. The 5 colonized but unincorporated territories of American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, and U.S. Virgin Islands together hold 23,789 km2 (9,185 square miles). Calculated by only land area, the U.S. is 3rd in size trailing Russia and China, just before Canada.

The U.S. is the world's 3rd or 4th largest country by total area (including land and water), ranking after Russia & Canada and closely equal to China. The standing differs depending on how 2 territories disputed by India & China are counted, and how the total area of the U.S. is measured.

The coastal plain of the seaboard of the Atlantic gives way more inland to ephemeral forests and the rolling hills terrain of the Piedmont plateau region. The Appalachian Mountains split the eastern seaboard from the grasslands of Midwest & the Great Lakes. The Mississippi–Missouri River, the earth's 4th longest river system, flows primarily north-south through the heart of the United States. The plain, fertile meadow of the Great Plains spans to the west, obstructed by a highland area in the south-east.

The Rocky Mountains, western region of the Great Plains, spread north to south over the U.S., culminating over 4,300 m (14,000 feet) in Colorado. Beyond west are the craggy Great Basin & deserts like the Chihuahua & Mojave. The Sierra Nevada & Cascade mountain ranges spread near to the Pacific coast, both of these mountain ranges reaching elevation higher than 4,300 m (14,000 feet). The highest and lowest points in the contiguous U.S. are in the California state, and merely about 135 km (84 miles) apart. At an altitude of 6,190.5 m (20,310 feet), Denali of Alaska is the highest peak in the U.S. and in the continent of North America. Alive volcanoes are common all over Alaska's Aleutian and Alexander Islands, and Hawaii comprises volcanic islands. The supervolcano lying in Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is North America's biggest volcanic point.

The U.S., with its large area and geological diversity, comprises nearly all types of climate. To the east of the hundredth meridian, the climate conditions range from moist continental in the north to moist subtropical in the south. The Great Plains in the west of the hundredth meridian are semi-arid. Many of the Western mountain ranges have alpine climate conditions. The climate condition is arid in the Great Basin, desert land in the South-west, Mediterranean in the coastal region of California, and oceanic in Washington, coastal Oregon & southern region of Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. State of Hawaii and Florida's southern tip are tropical, along with its territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. States of the United States of America edging the Gulf of Mexico are susceptible to hurricanes, and many of the earth's tornadoes arise in the U.S., majorly in Tornado Alley regions in the Midwest & South. In general, the U.S. gets major highly impacted extreme weather events than any other nation in the world.

Economy of United States

The economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $22.67 trillion in 2021. It is a mixed economy, characterized by a combination of free-market capitalism and government regulation. The US economy is highly diversified, with a strong service sector, manufacturing sector, and agricultural sector.


The United States has a rich economic history that dates back to the colonial era. In the early days, the economy was based primarily on agriculture, with crops such as tobacco, rice, and cotton being the major exports. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century brought about significant changes, as manufacturing became a dominant force in the economy.

The US economy continued to grow and develop throughout the 20th century, with the country emerging as a global economic superpower after World War II. The post-war period was marked by rapid economic growth, fueled by technological advancements, increased consumer spending, and government investment in infrastructure and education.

In the late 20th century, the US economy faced several challenges, including a recession in the early 1980s and the 2008 global financial crisis. However, the country has shown resilience and has continued to be a leading global economic player.

Key Economic Indicators

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

As mentioned earlier, the US has the world's largest economy, with a GDP of $22.67 trillion in 2021. The US economy has experienced steady growth over the years, with an average annual growth rate of 2.3% over the past decade.

Unemployment Rate

The US unemployment rate has been a significant economic indicator, measuring the percentage of the labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant spike in unemployment in 2020, with the rate peaking at 14.8% in April 2020. However, the rate has been declining steadily and was at 4.2% in September 2021.

Inflation Rate

Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, leading to a decline in purchasing power. The US inflation rate has been relatively low in recent years, hovering around 2% annually. However, there have been concerns about rising inflation in 2021, with the rate reaching a 13-year high of 6.8% in November.


The US is a major player in global trade, with both exports and imports contributing significantly to the economy. The country's top exports include machinery, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, while its top imports include cars, crude oil, and computers. The US has also been engaged in several trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Fiscal Policy

The US government plays a significant role in the economy through fiscal policy, which involves the use of government spending and taxation to influence economic activity. The government has implemented several measures, including stimulus packages and tax cuts, to boost economic growth and support businesses and individuals during economic downturns.

Monetary Policy

The US Federal Reserve is responsible for monetary policy, which involves setting interest rates and controlling the money supply to influence economic activity. The Federal Reserve has implemented several measures to support the economy, including lowering interest rates and quantitative easing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The US economy is a dynamic and complex system that is constantly evolving. Despite challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the economy has shown resilience and has continued to be a major player in the global economy. With strong government policies and a diverse economy, the US is well-positioned to maintain its economic leadership in the years to come.

Government and Politics in United States

The United States is a federal republic with a presidential system of government. It has a bicameral legislature, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The country operates under a constitution that was adopted in 1787 and has been amended several times since then. The Constitution provides for separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.

The President of the United States is both the head of state and the head of government. The President is elected by the Electoral College for a four-year term and can serve a maximum of two terms. The President has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The legislative branch of the federal government is the United States Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 100 members, with each state having two senators. Senators are elected for six-year terms, with one-third of the Senate up for election every two years. The House of Representatives is composed of 435 members, with the number of representatives for each state based on its population. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

The judicial branch of the federal government is headed by the Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the land. The Supreme Court has nine justices, who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Justices serve for life or until they retire or are impeached.

The United States is a two-party system, with the Democratic Party and the Republican Party being the dominant political parties. The President and members of Congress are elected through a first-past-the-post voting system, in which the candidate with the most votes wins. In addition to the two major parties, there are also several third-party and independent candidates who run for office.

The federal government has a wide range of responsibilities, including national defense, foreign policy, and regulating commerce. The government also provides a wide range of social services, such as education, healthcare, and social security.

State and local governments also play an important role in the United States political system. Each state has its own government, with a governor as the chief executive and a state legislature as the law-making body. Local governments, such as cities and counties, also have their own elected officials and laws.

The United States has a complex system of government and politics, with a wide range of institutions, laws, and regulations. Despite its challenges, the country remains one of the world's leading democracies, with a long history of political stability and economic prosperity.

Former national capitals

Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii

Before becoming a territory of the US in 1898, Hawaii was an independent nation. 5 sites served as its capital:

Kingdom of HawaiiWaikīkī1795 - 1796
Hilo1796 - 1803
Kailua-Kona1812 - 1820
Lahaina1820 - 1845
Honolulu1803 - 1812
1845 - January 17, 1893
January 17, 1893 - July 4, 1894 (as the seat of the Hawaii's Provisional Government after the dethrone of the Kingdom of Hawaii)
Republic of HawaiiJuly 4, 1894 - July 7, 1898
Territory of HawaiiJuly 7, 1898 - 1959 (covered by the Newlands Resolution to turn into the Territory of Hawaii)
State of Hawaii1959 - till date (Hawaii on becoming a state of the US in 1959)

Republic of Texas

Prior to joining the US under the Texas Annexation in 1845, the state of Texas was an autonomous nation acknowledged as the Republic of Texas. 7 cities served as its capital:

Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos)1836
Harrisburg (now part of Houston)1836
West Columbia1836
Houston1837 - 1839
Austin1839 - 1845 (present capital)

Native American capitals

Few Native American tribes, especially the 5 Civilized Tribes, formed their states with capitals and constitutions in Western style. Rest, like the Iroquois, had long-existing, pre-Columbian custom of a 'capitol' longhouse where council fires and wampum were continued with significant status. Since they did trade with the United States Federal Government, these capitals can be observe as officially accepted in some sense.

Cherokee Nation

New Echota1825 - 1832
Red Clay1832 - 1838
Tahlequah1839 - 1907, 1938 - present
Cherokee20th century - present (Cherokee's Eastern Band)

Muscogee Creek Nation

Hot Springs, Arkansas c.1837-1866

Iroquois Confederacy

Onondaga (Onondaga privilege c.)1450-present
Seneca Nation of Indians
Jimerson Town (Allegany Reservation)
Irving (Cattaraugus Reservation)

Navajo Nation

Window Rock

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been few nations inside the present borders of the US which were never officially accepted as constitutionally autonomous sovereign entities; but, these entities did have actual regulation over their respective areas at the time of their existence.

Vermont Republic

Windsor1777 - 1791

State of Franklin

Jonesborough, Tennessee1784 - ?
Greeneville, Tennessee1785? - ?

State of Muskogee

Miccosukee1799 - 1803

Republic of West Florida

St. Francisville, Louisiana1810

Republic of Indian Stream

Pittsburg, New Hampshire1832 - 1835

California Republic


Confederate States

Montgomery4th February, 1861 - 29th May, 1861
Richmond29th May, 1861 - 3rd April, 1865

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  1. Pittsburgh on US Map
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