United States Map with Capitals

Explore US states and capitals map, Washington, D.C. (formally the District of Columbia), has been the national capital of the U.S. since 1800. Every state of the United States of America has their own capital, as do its insular areas have. Most states of the U.S. have not switched their capital since admission to the Union, but the capitals of their corresponding prior kingdoms, territories, colonies, and republics commonly altered many times. There are other governments in the present boundaries of America with their individual capital cities, like the Native American Tribal nations in the U.S., Republic of Texas, and other anonymous governments.

United States Map with Capitals in Albers Equal Area Projection

United States Map with Capitals

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About United States Map with Capitals

The above US states and capitals maps are showing all the 50 states of United States of America with their state capitals and national capital Washington D.C..

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US States and Capitals

The United States comprises 50 states and every state has a capital. The capital of each state serves as its seat of government and is home to many government buildings. Of these 50 states, 25 states of the U.S. have changed their capitals at least once. Ten states belong to the group of the thirteen original states. Oklahoma was the last U.S. state to change its capital. In 1910, Oklahoma moved its capital from Guthrie to Oklahoma City.

The ‘Capital Since’ column in the following table list the years when that particular city became the capital of the state.

S.N.StateAbr.State-hoodCapitalArea (mi²)Capital sinceCapital Population (2019 est.)Population Rank in State (City Proper)
1New MexicoNM1912Santa Fe37.3161084,6834
6New JerseyNJ1787Trenton7.66178483,20310
7South CarolinaSC1788Columbia125.21786131,6742
9North CarolinaNC1789Raleigh114.61792474,0692
10New YorkNY1788Albany21.4179796,4606
12New HampshireNH1788Concord64.3180843,4123
15ArkansasAR1836Little Rock116.21821197,3121
19MissouriMO1821Jefferson City27.3182642,83815
28MinnesotaMN1858Saint Paul52.81849308,0962
33IowaIA1846Des Moines75.81857214,2371
34UtahUT1896Salt Lake City109.11858200,5671
35NevadaNV1864Carson City143.4186155,9166
43LouisianaLA1812Baton Rouge76.81880220,2362
44North DakotaND1889Bismarck26.9188373,5292
45West VirginiaWV1863Charleston31.6188546,5361
47South DakotaSD1889Pierre13188913,6468
48Rhode IslandRI1790Providence18.51900179,8831
50OklahomaOK1907Oklahoma City620.31910655,0571

Capital of Insular Areas

Insular area or Isolated area is a US territory or region that is not either a part or region of 1 of the 50 U.S. states and nor a region of the DC (District of Columbia), the US's national capital. Those isolated or insular territories with their capitals are mentioned below.

Capitals of US Insular Areas

S.N.AbbreviationInsular Areas NameCapitalsCapital SincePopulation (2010)
1PRPuerto RicoSan Juan18983,95,326
2MPNorthern Mariana IslandsSaipan194748,220
3VIU.S. Virgin IslandsCharlotte Amalie191718,481
4ASAmerican SamoaPago Pago18993,656

Capitals of United States

According to the Articles of Confederation, which came into force on March 1, 1781, the U.S. did not have a stable capital. The cities mentioned below were those places where the colonial American congresses held their meetings. The present Constitution of the United States was authorized in 1787. The constitution bestowed upon the Congress the authority to exercise ‘absolute constitution upon a commune that was to the the United States government’s seat of power. This was to be after cession of a few particular states and the recognition of the Congress.

The meeting of the first Congress took place in New York in Federal Hall. The Residence Act was passed in 1790. As per this act, the country capital was to be established at a place near the Potomac River. This place came to be known as Washington D.C. But for the afterward 10 years, i.e.. until 1800, Philadelphia, was the short-lived capital of the United States and the meetings took place at the Congress Hall. On 17th November, 1800, the Congress moved from Philadelphia to Washington D.C and formally convened in the new capital. Since then the Congress has held all its meetings in Washington D.C, except on two occasions. On 16th July, 1987, it met at Philadelphia’s Independence Hall. The occasion commemorated the 200th commemoration of the constitution’s ratification. On September 6, 2002, it met at the New York’s Federal Hall National Memorial. It marked September 11 attacks first anniversary.

From 1754 to 1819, Congress met in numerous locations; therefore, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital.

Capital CityBuilding NameState NameDate (Start)Date (End)Governing Body
AlbanyStadt HuysNew York19-Jun-175411-Jul-1754Albany Congress
New YorkCity HallNew York7-Oct-176525-Oct-1765Stamp Act Congress
PhiladelphiaCarpenters' HallPennsylvania5-Sep-177426-Oct-1774First Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania10-May-177512-Dec-1776Second Continental Congress
BaltimoreHenry Fite HouseMaryland20-Dec-177627-Feb-1777Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania5-Mar-177718-Sep-1777Second Continental Congress
LancasterCourt HousePennsylvania27-Sep-177727-Sep-1777Second Continental Congress
YorkCourt HousePennsylvania30-Sep-177727-Jun-1778Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaCollege Hall[citation needed]Pennsylvania2-Jul-17781-Mar-1781Second Continental Congress
PhiladelphiaIndependence HallPennsylvania2-Mar-178121-Jun-1783Congress of the Confederation
PrincetonNassau HallNew Jersey30-Jun-17834-Nov-1783Congress of the Confederation
AnnapolisMaryland State HouseMaryland26-Nov-178319-Aug-1784Congress of the Confederation
TrentonFrench Arms TavernNew Jersey1-Nov-178424-Dec-1784Congress of the Confederation
New YorkCity HallNew York11-Jan-17856-Oct-1788Congress of the Confederation
New YorkFederal HallNew York4-Mar-17895-Dec-1790United States Congress
PhiladelphiaCongress HallPennsylvania6-Dec-179014-May-1800United States Congress
District of ColumbiaUnited States Capitol-17-Nov-180024-Aug-1814United States Congress
Washington, D.C.Blodgett's Hotel-19-Sep-18147-Dec-1815United States Congress
Washington, D.C.Old Brick Capitol-4-Dec-18153-Mar-1819United States Congress
Washington, D.C.United States Capitol-4-Mar-1819presentUnited States Congress

History of the United States

The story of the United States starts around 15,000 BC, when the earliest known settlers arrived in the Americas. These settlers formed various indigenous societies. By the 16th century, many of these cultures shifted due to internal and external factors.

European explorers set foot in the Americas in the late 15th century. However, most areas that became part of the U.S. weren't settled until after 1600. By the mid-18th century, 2.5 million people lived in thirteen British colonies, stretching from the Atlantic Coast to the Appalachian Mountains. The Southern Colonies relied heavily on enslaved Africans, whom they forcibly brought over, to propel their agriculture.

Frictions arose when the British imposed taxes, such as the 1765 Stamp Act, without the colonies' consent. Acts of defiance, like the Boston Tea Party in 1773, escalated tensions. Britain's retaliatory measures against self-governance led to the outbreak of armed confrontations in Massachusetts by 1775.

A year later, the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia proclaimed the colonies' independence, naming them the "United States." Under General George Washington's leadership, they emerged victorious in the Revolutionary War. The 1783 peace treaty recognized the new nation. The initial Articles of Confederation struggled to maintain stability, prompting the creation of a more robust Constitution in 1789. To further safeguard citizens, a Bill of Rights was introduced in 1791.

Guided by President Washington and his main advisor, Alexander Hamilton, the U.S. established a robust central government. The country's territory grew substantially with the 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France.

Belief in "manifest destiny" fueled U.S. expansion to the Pacific. Although the landmass grew, the population was only about four million in 1790. This westward move was motivated by the allure of cheap land. However, the spread of slavery became contentious. While northern states abolished slavery by 1804, southern states, reliant on large-scale agriculture, persisted with the practice. The 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, who opposed slavery's expansion, was a breaking point. Southern states formed their own nation, leading to the Civil War. The conflict ended in 1865 with the Confederacy's defeat and slavery's nationwide abolition.

The subsequent Reconstruction period saw formerly enslaved males gain legal and voting rights. The national government's role expanded to protect these rights. Yet, by 1877, southern white Democrats, using force and legal barriers, reestablished dominance and enacted racially discriminatory "Jim Crow" laws.

The turn of the 20th century marked the U.S.'s rise as an industrial powerhouse, supported by entrepreneurism, industrial growth, and a surge of immigrants. Public dissatisfaction with corruption and traditional politics birthed the Progressive movement (1890s-1920s), bringing about reforms like direct senator elections, federal income tax, and women's voting rights. The U.S. entered World War I in 1917, supporting the Allies financially and militarily. The prosperous 1920s ended abruptly with the 1929 financial crash, plunging the world into the Great Depression. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal introduced measures to counter this crisis, including unemployment relief and a minimum wage.

After the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack, the U.S. joined World War II, aiding in the defeat of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The war concluded with the U.S. dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending Japan's participation.

Post-war, the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as dominant, yet opposing, forces, marking the start of the Cold War. They battled through space exploration, arms development, and indirect military confrontations. The civil rights movement of the 1960s brought major social reforms, especially for African Americans. The 1980s, under President Ronald Reagan, emphasized tax and regulatory cuts. The Cold War concluded in 1991 with the Soviet Union's dissolution, leaving the U.S. unmatched globally. Later, the U.S.'s focus shifted to Middle Eastern conflicts, particularly after the tragic events of September 11. The 21st century saw the U.S. grappling with the financial crisis of the late 2000s and the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Geography of the United States

Spanning a vast space, the United States and the District of Columbia cover a combined 3,119,885 square miles. Out of this, the land area, which includes 48 adjoining states, takes up 2,959,064 square miles, or roughly 83.65% of the country's total territory. Alaska, located in the northwestern corner of North America, claims about 15% of this space. The remainder lies in Hawaii, an island group in the central Pacific, and the territories like Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In terms of land alone, the U.S. ranks behind Russia and China, but slightly ahead of Canada. When we consider both land and water areas, the U.S. stands as the world's third-largest nation after Russia and Canada.

Geographically, the Atlantic coast is predominantly a coastal plain, which transitions to the forested hills of the Piedmont inland. The Appalachian Mountains play a pivotal role, separating the eastern coast from the Midwest's Great Lakes and grasslands. Flowing through the nation's heart, the Mississippi–Missouri River system is the world's fourth-longest. The Great Plains, known for its flat and fertile terrain, stretches out westward.

The majestic Rocky Mountains rise up west of the plains and stretch from north to south, with some peaks, especially in Colorado, surpassing 14,000 feet. Beyond them lie the vast Great Basin and various deserts including the Mojave. The Pacific coast is flanked by the towering Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges. Interestingly, the U.S.'s highest and lowest points are both in California and only about 84 miles apart. The grandeur of Alaska's Denali, at an elevation of 20,310 feet, makes it North America's tallest peak. Active volcanoes dot Alaska's Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii is known for its volcanic origins. The Yellowstone National Park houses North America's largest volcanic structure.

Climate of the United States

The U.S. boasts diverse climates due to its vast size. East of the 100th meridian, climates vary from the chilly humid continental in the north to the warm humid subtropical in the south. The Great Plains have a semi-arid climate, and the western mountains often have alpine conditions. Coastal California enjoys a Mediterranean climate, whereas regions like Alaska mostly experience subarctic or polar conditions. Hawaii and parts of Florida have tropical climates.

The Gulf of Mexico area is vulnerable to hurricanes, and the country, especially the Midwest and South, witnesses the highest number of tornadoes globally. The 21st century has seen the U.S. grappling with more frequent extreme weather events. For instance, heatwaves have tripled since the 1960s. Prolonged droughts have also been a concern in places like the Southwest.

Biodiversity in United States

The bald eagle, the U.S.'s national bird since 1782, symbolizes the country's rich biodiversity. The U.S. houses around 17,000 species of plants, with over 1,800 unique flowering plants in Hawaii alone. The nation is home to hundreds of mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian species.

The U.S. takes pride in its 63 national parks and countless federally managed forests and wilderness areas. Almost 28% of the country's territory is publicly owned. While most of these areas are protected, some are leased for various economic activities.

Several environmental challenges face the U.S., including resource management, pollution, deforestation, and climate change. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), founded in 1970, addresses these issues. Concepts like wilderness conservation have guided land management since the 1960s. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 protects vulnerable species and their habitats.

In 2020, the U.S. ranked 24th out of 180 nations in terms of environmental performance. Though the U.S. briefly withdrew from the Paris Agreement in 2020, it rejoined the global climate pact in 2021.

Facts about United States of America

Facts about US
Chief JusticeJohn Roberts
GovernmentFederal Presidential Constitutional Republic
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (Democratic Party)
Lower HouseHouse of Representatives
PresidentJoe Biden (Democratic Party)
Upper HouseSenate
Vice PresidentKamala Harris (Democratic Party)
ConfederationMarch 1, 1781
ConstitutionJune 21, 1788
DeclarationJuly 4, 1776
Independence fromGreat Britain
Last State AdmittedAugust 21, 1959
Treaty of ParisSeptember 3, 1783
Total Area3,796,742 square miles (9,833,520 square kilometers)
Total Land Area3,531,905 square miles (9,147,590 square kilometers)
Water (%)4.66%
GDP (Nominal) 2022 EstimateTotal: $24.8 Trillion, GDP Per Capita: $74,725
GDP (PPP) 2022 EstimateTotal: $24.8 Trillion, GDP Per Capita: $74,725
Gini (2020)48.5
HDI (2019)0.926
Highest PointDenali 6,190 meters (Mount McKinley) (highest point in the continent of North America)
Lowest PointDeath Valley (lowest point in the continent of North America) -86 meters
Mean Elevation760 meters
AnthemThe Star-Spangled Banner
Birth Rate (2021 estimate)12.33 births/1,000 population
Border CountriesCanada 8,891 kilometers (including 2,475 kilometers with Alaska), Mexico 3,111 kilometers
Calling Code+1
CapitalWashington, D.C.
Coastline19,924 kilometers
CurrencyU.S. Dollar ($) or USD
Death Rate (2021 estimate)8.35 deaths/1,000 population
Driving SideRight
Education Expenditures5% of GDP
Ethnic Groups (2020)By Race: 61.6% White, 12.4% Black, 6.0% Asian, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 10.2% Multiracial and 8.4% Other; By Hispanic or Latino Origin: 81.3% Non-Hispanic or Latino, 18.7% Hispanic or Latino
Geographic Coordinates38 00 N, 97 00 W
Internet Country Code.us
Irrigated Land264,000 square kilometers
ISO 3166 CodeUS
Land BoundariesTotal: 12,002 kilometers
Land UseAgricultural Land: Total: 44.5%, Arable Land: 16.8%, Permanent Crops: 0.3%, Permanent Pasture: 27.4% ; Forest: 33.3% ; and Other: 22.2%
Largest CityNew York City
MottoIn God We Trust
National LanguageEnglish (de facto)
National Symbol(s)Bald Eagle ; National Colors: Red, White, Blue
Population2021 Estimate: 331,893,745 ; 2020 Census: 331,449,281 ; Population Density: 87/sq mi (33.6/km2)
Religion (2021)63% Christianity, 40% Protestantism, 21% Catholicism, 2% Other Christian, 28% No religion, 6% Other, 2% Unanswered
Time ZoneUTC-4 to -12, +10, +11 ; Summer (DST): UTC-4 to -10
Date Formatmm/dd/yyyy
Net Migration Rate (2021 estimate)3.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Former national capitals

Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii

Before becoming a territory of the US in 1898, Hawaii was an independent nation. 5 sites served as its capital:

Kingdom of HawaiiWaikīkī1795 - 1796
Hilo1796 - 1803
Kailua-Kona1812 - 1820
Lahaina1820 - 1845
Honolulu1803 - 1812
1845 - January 17, 1893
January 17, 1893 - July 4, 1894 (as the seat of the Hawaii's Provisional Government after the dethrone of the Kingdom of Hawaii)
Republic of HawaiiJuly 4, 1894 - July 7, 1898
Territory of HawaiiJuly 7, 1898 - 1959 (covered by the Newlands Resolution to turn into the Territory of Hawaii)
State of Hawaii1959 - till date (Hawaii on becoming a state of the US in 1959)

Republic of Texas

Prior to joining the US under the Texas Annexation in 1845, the state of Texas was an autonomous nation acknowledged as the Republic of Texas. 7 cities served as its capital:

Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos)1836
Harrisburg (now part of Houston)1836
West Columbia1836
Houston1837 - 1839
Austin1839 - 1845 (present capital)

Native American capitals

Few Native American tribes, especially the 5 Civilized Tribes, formed their states with capitals and constitutions in Western style. Rest, like the Iroquois, had long-existing, pre-Columbian custom of a 'capitol' longhouse where council fires and wampum were continued with significant status. Since they did trade with the United States Federal Government, these capitals can be observe as officially accepted in some sense.

Cherokee Nation

New Echota1825 - 1832
Red Clay1832 - 1838
Tahlequah1839 - 1907, 1938 - present
Cherokee20th century - present (Cherokee's Eastern Band)

Muscogee Creek Nation

Hot Springs, Arkansas c.1837-1866

Iroquois Confederacy

Onondaga (Onondaga privilege c.)1450-present
Seneca Nation of Indians
Jimerson Town (Allegany Reservation)
Irving (Cattaraugus Reservation)

Navajo Nation

Window Rock

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been few nations inside the present borders of the US which were never officially accepted as constitutionally autonomous sovereign entities; but, these entities did have actual regulation over their respective areas at the time of their existence.

Vermont Republic

Windsor1777 - 1791

State of Franklin

Jonesborough, Tennessee1784 - ?
Greeneville, Tennessee1785? - ?

State of Muskogee

Miccosukee1799 - 1803

Republic of West Florida

St. Francisville, Louisiana1810

Republic of Indian Stream

Pittsburg, New Hampshire1832 - 1835

California Republic


Confederate States

Montgomery4th February, 1861 - 29th May, 1861
Richmond29th May, 1861 - 3rd April, 1865

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