World Map

The 206 listed countries or states can be divided into 3 categories based on membership within the United Nations System: 193 member countries, 2 observer countries and 11 other countries. According to the sovereignty dispute, 190 countries have undisputed sovereignty and countries have disputed sovereignty (16 countries, of which there are 6 member countries, 1 observer country and 9 other countries).

World Map with Countries

About World Map

Explore the above World Map with all the sovereign countries labeled on it. It can only be used for free for education purposes only.

A world map is a representation of Earth which shows the maximum or entire surface of the earth. World maps face the issue of projection due to their scale. World maps carried out in 2D (two dimension) by requirement disfigure the presentation of the 3D (three dimensional) image of earth’s surface. Although this is true for all maps, these disfigures become highly noticeable in a map of the world. Various approaches have been created and used to show world maps that deal with artistic and distinct technical goals.

Plotting a world map needs comprehensive knowledge of Earth, its continents, and its oceans. From early history to the Middle ages, charting a correct map of the world would have been impractical because fewer than half of the coastlines of earth and only a tiny portion of its global interiors were recognized to any civilization. Awareness of the surface of the earth increased speedily with exploration that started at the time of the European Renaissance and many of the coastlines of the world had been diagramed, slightly roughly, by the time of the mid 1700s and the global interiors by the 20th century.

World Maps commonly show either physical features or political features. Political world maps highlight territorial borders and human town-centre or settlement. Physical world maps show geographical aspects like soil type, mountains, land use, rivers, landforms, plateau, peaks, lakes, etc. Geological world maps display not only the Earth’s surface, but features of the underlying rock, subsurface structures, and fault lines. Choropleth world maps use colour complexion and depth to highlight differences among regions like economic and demographic figures.

World map shows the continents, countries, oceans, seas, rivers, mountains, and other geographical features. The most commonly used world map projection is the Mercator projection, which distorts the size of land masses at the poles, making them appear larger than they actually are. Other projections, such as the Robinson projection or the Winkel Tripel projection, attempt to minimize these distortions and provide a more accurate representation of the Earth's surface.

The world map is divided into five major oceans, which are the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern, and Arctic. The seven continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

The world map is used for a variety of purposes, including education, navigation, tourism, and research. It can help people understand the world's physical and political geography, as well as the relationships between different countries and regions.

World Map Projections

All maps of the world are developed on one of various world map projections, or mechanisms of depicting an earth on a plane. All world map projections disfigure geographical or physical features, directions, and distances in some manner. The many world map projections that have been created and used add distinct ways of adjusting accuracy and the inescapable misrepresentation implicit in developing world maps.

Reasonably the most famous map projection is the Mercator, formerly crafted as a nautical chart.

Thematic World Maps

A thematic world map displays geographical statistics related to one or a many focused topics. These world maps can describe social, physical, political, economic, cultural, agricultural, sociological, or several other statistics of a region, city, region, state, nation, and continent.

Historical World Maps

Prehistoric world maps show illustrations of the earth from the Iron Age to the Discovery Age and the evolution of contemporary geography at the time of the initial modern era. Old world maps show data about regions that were recognized in the past, along with the cultural and philosophical basis of the world map, which were generally much distinct from present-day cartography. World maps are one medium by which scientists circulate their intelligence and spread them to coming generations.

World History

World history is a vast and complex subject that covers the entire scope of human civilization. It involves studying the development of human societies and cultures over time, examining the key events and people that have shaped our world, and analyzing the factors that have driven progress, conflict, and change. From the emergence of early civilizations to the modern era, world history has been marked by a constant interplay between cultural, economic, and political forces that have shaped the course of human history.

The earliest known civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia and Egypt around 4000 BCE. These societies developed complex systems of writing, agriculture, and trade, laying the foundation for the growth of urban centers and the rise of powerful empires. In Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians built some of the earliest known city-states and empires, while in Egypt, the pharaohs established a centralized kingdom that lasted for thousands of years.

As these early civilizations developed, they came into contact with each other through trade, diplomacy, and warfare, leading to the spread of ideas and technologies across the ancient world. One of the most significant developments during this period was the rise of the Persian Empire, which emerged in the 6th century BCE and expanded across much of the Middle East, Asia Minor, and parts of Europe. Led by kings such as Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire was a major power for several centuries and played a crucial role in shaping the political and cultural landscape of the ancient world.

In Greece, a series of city-states emerged during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, including Athens, Sparta, and Corinth. These city-states developed unique political systems, cultural traditions, and artistic styles, and made significant contributions to philosophy, literature, and science. The Greek city-states also came into contact with other civilizations, including the Persian Empire, and engaged in a series of wars that would shape the course of Western civilization.

One of the most famous conflicts between Greece and Persia was the Persian Wars, which began in 490 BCE when the Persian Empire invaded Greece. The Greeks, led by Athens and Sparta, defeated the Persian forces in a series of battles, including the famous Battle of Marathon. This victory helped to establish the Greek city-states as major players in the ancient world and laid the foundation for the growth of Western civilization.

In the centuries that followed, the power of Greece declined and was replaced by a series of powerful empires, including the Roman Empire. Founded in 753 BCE, Rome grew to become one of the largest and most powerful empires in history, stretching from Spain to Egypt and from Britain to the Black Sea. The Roman Empire was known for its advanced engineering and architectural achievements, its legal and political systems, and its military might. However, internal conflicts and external pressures eventually led to its decline and collapse in the 5th century CE.

As the Roman Empire fell, Europe entered a period of political and social instability known as the Dark Ages. During this time, various kingdoms and empires rose and fell, and Europe experienced significant cultural, economic, and technological changes. One of the most important developments during this period was the emergence of Christianity, which spread rapidly throughout Europe and became the dominant religion of the continent.

In the Middle East, the rise of Islam in the 7th century CE would have a profound impact on world history. Founded by the prophet Muhammad, Islam quickly spread across the Arabian Peninsula and into the surrounding regions, creating a powerful new civilization that would rival the Byzantine and Persian empires. The Islamic Golden Age, which lasted from the 8th to the 14th centuries, was a time of significant cultural and scientific advancements, including the development of algebra, astronomy, and medicine

World Physical Features

The physical features of the world refer to the natural formations and characteristics of the earth's surface. These features are the result of natural processes that have shaped the earth over millions of years. Some of the physical features of the world include mountains, rivers, deserts, oceans, and forests.

Mountains are one of the most striking physical features of the world. They are typically formed by the movement of tectonic plates and are often located at the boundaries of these plates. The Himalayas, for example, were formed when the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate. Mountains come in many different shapes and sizes, from small hills to towering peaks like Mount Everest, which is the highest point on earth at 29,029 feet (8,848 meters) above sea level.

Rivers are another important physical feature of the world. They are formed by the movement of water through the earth's surface and can be found in every continent on earth. Rivers are essential to life on earth, providing water for drinking, irrigation, and transportation. Some of the world's most famous rivers include the Nile, the Amazon, and the Mississippi.

Deserts are another physical feature of the world. They are areas that receive very little rainfall and are characterized by their arid landscapes and extreme temperatures. The largest desert in the world is the Sahara, which covers much of northern Africa. Other notable deserts include the Arabian Desert, the Gobi Desert, and the Mojave Desert.

Oceans are the largest physical feature of the world, covering more than 70% of the earth's surface. They are essential to life on earth, providing a home to countless species of marine life and regulating the earth's climate. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world, covering more than 63 million square miles (163 million square kilometers).

Forests are another important physical feature of the world. They are home to a vast array of plant and animal species and are essential to the health of the planet. Forests are also important sources of lumber, fuel, and other resources. The Amazon Rainforest is the largest forest in the world, covering more than 2.7 million square miles (6.7 million square kilometers).

In addition to these major physical features, the world is also home to many other unique and interesting natural formations. These include canyons, waterfalls, glaciers, and volcanoes. Each of these features has its own unique history and characteristics, and they all contribute to the rich tapestry of the earth's natural beauty.

Canyons are deep valleys that are often carved by rivers over millions of years. The Grand Canyon in the United States is one of the most famous canyons in the world, known for its stunning views and unique rock formations.

Waterfalls are another interesting natural feature of the world. They are formed when a river or stream flows over a steep drop in elevation, creating a cascade of water. Some of the world's most famous waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Victoria Falls, and Angel Falls.

Glaciers are massive sheets of ice that form over thousands of years in areas with very cold temperatures. They are essential to regulating the earth's climate and are an important source of freshwater. The largest glacier in the world is the Lambert-Fisher Glacier in Antarctica, which measures more than 250 miles (400 kilometers) long.

Volcanoes are another fascinating natural feature of the world. They are formed when magma from deep within the earth's crust rises to the surface and erupts. Volcanoes can be destructive, but they also create new land and help to recycle the earth's crust. The largest volcano in the world is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, which stands more than 13,000 feet (3,962 meters) above sea level.

World Economy

The economy of the world is a complex and dynamic system that is constantly evolving. It is influenced by a range of factors such as politics, technology, trade, natural resources, and human capital. The world economy can be broadly divided into developed and developing countries. Developed countries are characterized by high levels of industrialization, a highly skilled workforce, and advanced technology. Developing countries, on the other hand, are typically characterized by lower levels of industrialization, a less skilled workforce, and less advanced technology.

The global economy has grown significantly over the past few decades, with many countries experiencing significant economic growth and development. However, this growth has been uneven, with some regions and countries experiencing significant economic progress while others have struggled to keep pace. In this article, we will explore some of the key trends and issues shaping the global economy today.

Globalization and Trade

One of the defining features of the world economy today is globalization. Advances in technology and transportation have made it easier than ever for goods, services, and people to move across borders. As a result, trade between countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), world merchandise trade grew by 4.0% in 2019, reaching $18.89 trillion.

Trade has brought many benefits to countries around the world. It has allowed them to access new markets, promote economic growth, and create jobs. However, globalization has also created challenges. One of the most significant challenges is the impact of trade on jobs and wages. As companies have moved production to countries with lower labor costs, workers in developed countries have seen their wages stagnate or decline. This has contributed to rising inequality and political polarization in many countries.

The rise of protectionism is another challenge to the global trading system. Protectionist policies, such as tariffs and quotas, can limit trade between countries and harm economic growth. In recent years, there has been a rise in protectionist sentiment in many countries, with some governments imposing new trade barriers. This trend has the potential to harm global economic growth and lead to increased political tensions.

Technology and Innovation

Advances in technology have been a major driver of economic growth and development around the world. New technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and the Internet of Things, have the potential to transform many industries and create new economic opportunities. However, technology also has the potential to disrupt existing industries and displace workers.

The adoption of new technologies is not evenly distributed around the world. Developed countries are typically better positioned to take advantage of new technologies, given their higher levels of education and infrastructure. This has the potential to widen the gap between developed and developing countries and exacerbate existing inequalities. Innovation is another key driver of economic growth. Countries that invest in research and development (R&D) are more likely to create new industries and generate economic growth. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), global R&D spending grew by 5.2% in 2019, reaching $2.2 trillion. However, there are concerns that some countries are not investing enough in R&D, which could limit their ability to compete in the global economy.

Climate Change and Sustainability

Climate change and sustainability are increasingly important issues for the global economy. Climate change poses significant risks to economic growth and stability, as extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and other climate-related impacts can damage infrastructure, disrupt supply chains, and harm human health. In addition, there is growing recognition that the world's natural resources are finite and that current patterns of production and consumption are unsustainable.

Many governments and businesses are taking steps to address these issues. For example, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a framework for countries to promote sustainable development and address key challenges such as poverty, hunger, and climate.

Sovereign Countries in the World

S.N.Recognised Countries in the WorldCapitalPopulationCurrencyDialing CodeArea (km2)Area (sq mi)
4AndorraAndorra la Vella85,458Euro+376468181
6Antigua and BarbudaSt. John's89,000East Caribbean dollar+1 268440170
7ArgentinaBuenos Aires43,131,966Peso+542,780,4001,073,518
9AustraliaCanberra23,923,600Australian Dollar+617,741,2202,988,902
12BahamasNassau379,000Bahamian dollar+1 24213,8785,358
13BahrainManama1,781,000Bahraini dinar+973765295.37
15BarbadosBridgetown283,000Barbadian dollar+1 246439166
16BelarusMinsk9,608,058Belarusian ruble+375207,60080,155
18BelizeBelmopan369,000Belize dollar+50122,9668,867
19BeninPorto-Novo8,439,000CFA franc+229112,62243,484
20BhutanThimphu760,000Bhutanese ngultrum+97538,39414,824
22Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo3,871,643Convertible mark+38751,19719,767
25BruneiBandar Seri Begawan421,000Brunei dollar+6735,7652,226
27Burkina FasoOuagadougou13,228,000CFA franc+226274,000105,792
28BurundiBujumbura7,548,000Burundian franc+25727,83010,745
29CambodiaPhnom Penh15,040,000Riel+855181,03569,898
30CameroonYaoundé17,795,000CFA franc+237475,442183,569
31CanadaOttawa35,819,000Canadian dollar+19,984,6703,854,085
32Cape VerdePraia420,979Cape Verdean escudo+2384,0331,557
33Central African RepublicBangui4,216,666CFA franc+236622,984240,535
34ChadN'Djamena10,146,000CFA franc+2351,284,000495,755
36China (PRC)Beijing1,370,793,000Renminbi (yuan)+869,596,9613,705,407
37ColombiaBogotá / Santa Fe de Bogotá48,347,000Peso+571,138,910439,736
38ComorosMoroni798,000Comorian franc+2692,235863
39Costa RicaSan José35,819,000Costa Rican colón+50651,10019,653
41CubaHavana11,252,000Cuban peso, Cuban convertible peso+53109,88442,426
43Czech RepublicPrague10,538,275Czech koruna+42078,86730,451
44Democratic Republic of the CongoKinshasa75,507,308Congolese franc+2432,344,858905,355
45DenmarkCopenhagen5,569,077Danish krone+4543,09416,639
46DjiboutiDjibouti City906,000Djiboutian franc+25323,2008,958
47DominicaRoseau71,000East Caribbean dollar+1 767750290
48Dominican RepublicSanto Domingo9,980,000Dominican Peso+1 809, +1 829, +1 84948,44218,704
49EcuadorQuito16,346,700United States dollar593283,561109,484
50EgyptCairo84,550,000Egyptian pound+201,001,449386,662
51El SalvadorSan Salvador6,460,000United States dollar+50321,0418,124
52Equatoria`l GuineaMalabo504,000CFA Franc+24028,05110,831
55EthiopiaAddis Ababa85,237,338Birr+2511,104,300426,373
56Federated States of MicronesiaPalikir135,869United States Dollar+691702271
57FijiSuva890,057Fijian Dollar+67918,2747,056
59FranceParis66,259,012Euro, CFP franc+33643,427248,429
60GabonLibreville1,384,000CFA franc+241267,668103,347
61GambiaBanjul1,517,000Gambian dalasi+22010,3804,008
62GeorgiaTbilisi / T'bilisi4,935,880Lari+99569,70026,911
64GhanaAccra23,000,000Ghana cedi+233238,53492,098
66GrenadaSt. George's104,000East Caribbean dollar+1 473348.5132.8
67GuatemalaGuatemala City16,176,000Guatemalan quetzal+502108,88942,042
68GuineaConakry10,057,975CFA Franc+240245,85794,926
69Guinea-BissauBissau1,586,000CFA franc+24536,12513,948
70GuyanaGeorgetown747,884Guyanese dollar+592214,96983,000
71HaitiPort-au-Prince10,994,000Haitian gourde+50927,75010,714
72HondurasTegucigalpa8,950,000Honduran lempira+504112,49243,278
74IcelandReykjavík317,351Icelandic króna+354103,00039,769
75IndiaNew Delhi1,299,499,000Indian rupee+913,287,5901,269,346
78IraqBaghdad36,575,000Iraqi dinar+964437,072169,234
80IsraelJerusalem (proclaimed)8,372,000New Shekel+97222,0728,522
82Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)Yamoussoukro17,654,843CFA franc+225322,460124,503
83JamaicaKingston2,729,000Jamaican dollar+1 87610,9914,244
85JordanAmman6,837,000Jordanian dinar+96289,34235,637
86KazakhstanAstana17,948,816Tenge+7-6xx, +7-7xx2,724,9001,052,090
87KenyaNairobi34,707,817Kenyan shilling+254580,367224,081
88KiribatiTarawa101,998Australian Dollar, Kiribati Dollar+686811313
89KuwaitKuwait City4,161,000Kuwaiti dinar+96517,8206,880
93LebanonBeirut4,288,000Lebanese pound+96110,4524,036
94LesothoMaseru2,067,000Lesotho loti+26630,35511,720
95LiberiaMonrovia4,128,572Liberian dollar+231111,36943,000
97LiechtensteinVaduz37,313Swiss franc+42316062
99LuxembourgLuxembourg City520,672Euro+3522,586998
100MacedoniaSkopje2,091,719Macedonian denar+38925,7139,928
101MadagascarAntananarivo18,606,000Malagasy ariary+261587,041226,658
103MalaysiaKuala Lumpur31,032,000Ringgit+60329,847127,355
104MaldivesMalé345,000Maldivian rufiyaa+960298115
105MaliBamako13,518,000CFA franc+2231,240,192478,841
107Marshall IslandsMajuro73,630United States Dollar+69218170
109MauritiusPort Louis1,219,220Mauritian rupee+2302,040788
110MexicoMexico City121,006,000Mexican Peso+521,972,550761,606
111MoldovaChișinău3,583,288Moldovan leu+37333,85113,070
115MoroccoRabat35,757,175Moroccan dirham+212446,550172,414
116MozambiqueMaputo20,366,795Mozambican metical+258801,590309,496
117Myanmar (Burma)Naypyidaw52,280,000Kyat+95676,578261,227
118NamibiaWindhoek2,031,000Namibian dollar+264825,418318,696
119NauruNo official Capital12,329Australian dollar+674218
120NepalKathmandu28,038,000Nepalese rupee+977147,18156,827
121NetherlandsAmsterdam(capital)16,877,351Euro, US dollar, NA guilder, Aruban florin+3141,54316,040
122New ZealandWellington4,570,038New Zealand Dollar+64267,710103,363
123NicaraguaManagua6,514,000Nicaraguan córdoba+505130,37550,193
124NigerNiamey13,957,000CFA franc+2271,267,000489,191
126North KoreaP'yŏngyang25,863,000North Korean won+850120,54046,528
127NorwayOslo5,147,792Norwegian krone+47323,802125,021
129PakistanIslamabad191,785,000Pakistani Rupee+92803,940310,403
130PalauNgerulmud21,032United States Dollar+680459177
131PalestineJerusalem (proclaimed), Ramallah4,225,710Israeli Shekel+9706,2202,402
132PanamaPanama City3,764,000Panamanian balboa, United States dollar+50774,177.3028,640
133Papua New GuineaPort Moresby6,310,129Papua New Guinean kina+675462,840178,704
135PeruLima31,151,643Nuevo sol+511,285,216496,225
136PhilippinesManila102,965,000Philippine Peso+63300,000115,831
137PolandWarsaw38,346,279Polish złoty+48312,685120,728
140Republic of the CongoBrazzaville4,012,809CFA franc+242342,000132,047
141RomaniaBucharest21,729,871Romanian leu+40238,39192,043
142RussiaMoscow146,267,288Russian ruble+717,098,2426,601,668
143RwandaKigali7,600,000Rwandan franc+25026,79810,347
144Saint Kitts and NevisBasseterre46,000East Caribbean dollar+1 869261104
145Saint LuciaCastries172,000East Caribbean dollar+1 758617238.23
146Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesKingstown110,000East Caribbean dollar+1 784389150
147SamoaApia194,320Samoan tālā+6852,8311,093
148San MarinoSan Marino32,742Euro+3786124
149São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé183,176Dobra+239964372
150Saudi ArabiaRiyadh31,521,000Saudi riyal+9662,149,690830,000
151SenegalDakar11,658,000CFA franc+221196,72375,955
152SerbiaBelgrade7,209,764Serbian dinar+38188,36134,116
153SeychellesVictoria80,654Seychellois rupee+248451174
154Sierra LeoneFreetown6,144,562Leone+23271,74027,699
155SingaporeSingapore City5,541,000Singapore dollar+65719.1278
158Solomon IslandsHoniara584,578Solomon Islands dollar+67728,89611,157
159SomaliaMogadishu9,832,017Somali shilling+252637,657246,201
160South AfricaBloemfontein(judicial) Cape Town(legislative) and Pretoria(executive)52,981,991South African rand+271,221,037471,445
161South KoreaSeoul50,617,000South Korean won+82100,21038,691
162South SudanJuba8,260,490South Sudanese pound+211644,329248,777
164Sri LankaSri Jayawardenapura Kotte20,869,000Sri Lankan rupee+9465,61025,332
165SudanKhartoum36,787,012Sudanese pound+2491,861,484718,723
166SurinameParamaribo541,638Surinamese dollar+597163,82063,251
167SwazilandLobamba (royal and legislative) Mbabane(administrative)1,032,000Lilangeni+26817,3646,704
168SwedenStockholm9,723,809Swedish krona+46450,295173,860
169SwitzerlandBern / Berne8,061,516Swiss franc+4141,27715,937
170SyriaDamascus23,270,000Syrian pound+963185,18071,479
172TanzaniaDodoma44,929,002Tanzanian shilling+255945,203364,945
174Timor-Leste (East Timor)Dili1,245,000US Dollar+67015,4105,743
175TogoLomé7,154,237CFA franc+22856,78521,925
176TongaNukuʻalofa106,146Tongan paʻanga+676747288
177Trinidad and TobagoPort of Spain1,357,000Trinidad and Tobago dollar+1 8685,1311,981
178TunisiaTunis10,102,000Tunisian dinar+216163,61063,170
179TurkeyAnkara78,214,000Turkish lira+90783,562302,535
180TurkmenistanAshgabat4,902,000Turkmen new manat+993491,210188,456
181TuvaluFunafuti11,146Australian dollar, Tuvaluan dollar+6882610
182UgandaKampala27,616,000Ugandan shilling+256236,04091,136
183UkraineKiev44,291,413Ukrainian hryvnia+380603,550233,032
184United Arab EmiratesAbu Dhabi8,933,000UAE dirham+97183,60032,278
185United KingdomLondon63,742,977Pound sterling+44243,61094,058
186United StatesWashington, D.C.321,234,000United States dollar+19,857,3063,805,927
187UruguayMontevideo3,404,189Uruguayan peso+598176,21568,037
188UzbekistanTashkent31,283,000Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi)+998448,978172,742
189VanuatuPort Vila256,155Vanuatu vatu+67812,1894,706
190Vatican CityVatican City842Euro+3790.440.17
191VenezuelaCaracas30,620,404Bolívar fuerte+58912,050352,144
193YemenSana'a26,745,000Yemeni rial+967528,076203,796
194ZambiaLusaka14,668,000Zambian kwacha+260752,614290,586
195ZimbabweHarare13,010,000US dollar+263390,757150,872

Countries with Limited Recognition

S.N.Non-United Nations Member Sovereign CountriesStatusCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1AbkhaziaClaimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognized or acclaimed by 4 UN countries.Sukhumi / SukhumAbkhazian apsar, Russian ruble+7 840, +7 940, +995 44250,0008,6603,344
2Cook IslandsSelf-governing in free association with New ZealandAvaruaNew Zealand dollar, Cook Islands dollar+68220,81123691
3KosovoRecognized or acclaimed by 108 UN member countries.PristinaEuro+3811,836,52910,8874,203
4Nagorno-KarabakhClaimed as part ofAzerbaijan. De facto independent state, Recognized or acclaimed by 3 non-UN states.StepanakertArmenian dram, Nagorno-Karabakh dram+374 47 / 97141,4007,0002,703
5NiueSelf-governing in free association with New ZealandAlofiNew Zealand dollar+6832,134260100
6Northern CyprusRecognized by Turkey. Claimed as part of the Cyprus.NicosiaTurkish lira+90 392294,9063,3551,295
7Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicClaimed as the southernmost provinces of Morocco. Recognized by the African Union and 84 UN members as the representative government of Western Sahara.El Aaiún(proclaimed)Algerian dinar, Sahrawi peseta+212266,000267,405103,246
8SomalilandState within the Federal regions of Somalia.Recognized by no UN member.HargeisaSomaliland shilling+2524,000,000137,60053,128
9South OssetiaClaimed as part of Georgia. Recognized or acclaimed by 4 UN countries.TskhinvaliRussian ruble+995 3470,0003,9001,506
10TaiwanClaimed as a province of ChinaTaipeiNew Taiwan dollar+88623,071,77935,98013,892
11TransnistriaClaimed as a administrative division of Moldova. De facto independent state, Recognized or acclaimed by three non-UN countries.TiraspolTransnistrian ruble+373530,0003,5001,351

Non-Sovereign Territories

Non-Sovereign Dependent Territories in the World

S.N.Dependent TerritoriesStatusCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Akrotiri and DhekeliaBritish overseas territoryEpiskopi CantonmentEuro+3577,700 Cypriots, 8,000 British military personnel and their families25498
2American SamoaInsular area of the United StatesPago PagoUnited States dollar+1 68457,34519976.8
3AnguillaBritish Overseas TerritoryThe ValleyEast Caribbean dollar+1 26413,0379135
4Ashmore and Cartier IslandsTerritory of AustraliaUninhabitedLocal currency (ABC) Uninhabited52
5Bajo Nuevo BankUnincorporated Unorganized Territory of the United States of America, uninhabited, disputed by 3 other nations.N/AN/AN/A014556
6Baker IslandUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited2.10.81
7BermudaBritish Overseas TerritoryHamiltonBermudian dollar+1 44164,23753.220.6
8British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish overseas territory United States Dollar, Pound sterling+2463,00054,40021,004
9British Virgin IslandsBritish Overseas TerritoryRoad TownUnited States dollar+1 28428,05415359
10Cayman IslandsBritish Overseas TerritoryGeorge TownCayman Islands dollar+1 34558,238264102
11Christmas IslandTerritory of AustraliaFlying Fish CoveAustralian dollar+61 8 91642,07213552
12Clipperton IslandFrench state private propertyUninhabitedEuro Uninhabited62.3
13Cocos (Keeling) IslandsTerritory of AustraliaWest Island / BantamAustralian dollar+61596145
14Coral Sea IslandsTerritory of AustraliaUninhabited  431
15Easter IslandSpecial territory of ChileHanga RoaChilean Peso+565,761163.663.2
16Falkland IslandsBritish overseas territoryStanleyFalkland Islands pound+5003,14012,1734,700
17Faroe Islands / Faeroe IslandsConstituent country of DenmarkTórshavnFaroese króna, Danish krone+29849,9471,393538
18French PolynesiaOverseas country of FrancePapeeteCFP Franc+689294,9354,1671,609
19French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench overseas territorySaint-PierreEuro+33, +262140 estimate38.615
20GibraltarBritish overseas territoryGibraltarGibraltar pound+35029,1856.52.5
21GuamInsular area of the United StatesHagåtña / AgañaUnited States Dollar+1-671161,785541.3209
22GuernseyCrown Dependency of the Crown in Right of the UK.Saint Peter PortPound sterling+4465,8497830
23HawaiiState of the United StatesHonoluluUnited States dollar+1 808, +1 650, +1 2091,419,56128,31110,931
24Hong KongSpecial Administrative Region of ChinaHong KongHong Kong dollar+8527,298,6001,104426
25Howland IslandUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited1.621.05
26Isle of ManCrown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the UK.DouglasPound sterling+4486,866572221
27Jarvis IslandUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited4.51.75
28JerseyCrown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the UK.Saint HelierPound sterling+4496,51311846
29Johnston AtollUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited2.671.03
30Juan Fernández IslandsSpecial territory of ChileSan Juan BautistaChilean Peso+5690099.638.5
31Kingman ReefUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited7629
32Macau / MacaoSpecial Administrative Region of ChinaMacau / MacaoMacanese pataca+853642,90028.210.9
33Midway IslandsUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar+1 808606.22.4
34MontserratBritish Overseas TerritoryPlymouthEast Caribbean dollar+1 6644,92210239
35Navassa IslandUnincorporated Unorganized Territory of the United States, uninhabited, disputed by HaitiN/AUnited States dollarN/AUninhabited5.42
36New CaledoniaSui generiscollectivity of FranceNouméaCFP Franc+687268,76718,5767,172
37Norfolk IslandSelf-governing integralTerritory of AustraliaKingstonAustralian Dollar+672 32,21034.613.3
38Northern Mariana IslandsInsular area of the United StatesSaipanUnited States Dollar+1 67053,855475.3183.5
39Ogasawara VillagePart of Ogasawara Village inTokyo, JapanŌmura (大村)Yen+81 32,871104.4140.31
40Palmyra AtollUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar+14 - 20124.6
41PapuaProvince of IndonesiaJayapuraIndonesian Rupiah+62 93,486,432319,036.05123,180.51
42Pitcairn IslandsBritish overseas territoryAdamstownNew Zealand dollar+64564718.1
43Puerto RicoUnincorporated territory(U.S. Commonwealth)San JuanUnited States dollar+1 787 / 9393,548,3979,1043,515
44Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaBritish overseas territoryJamestownSaint Helena pound, Pound sterling+2905,661420162
45Serranilla BankUnincorporated Unorganized Territory of the United States, uninhabited, disputed by Honduras, Nicaragua and United States.N/AN/AN/AN/A1,200463.32
46South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsBritish overseas territoryKing Edward PointPound sterling+500no indigenous inhabitants3,9031,507
47TokelauDependent territory of New ZealandEach Atoll has its own administrative centreNew Zealand dollar+6901,431103.86
48Turks and Caicos IslandsBritish Overseas TerritoryCockburn TownUnited States dollar+1 64931,618616.3238
49United States Virgin IslandsUnincorporated organized Territory of the United StatesCharlotte AmalieUnited States dollar+1 340106,405346.36133.73
50Wake IslandUnited States Minor Outlying IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar+1 8081507.12.73
51Wallis and FutunaOverseas collectivity of FranceMata-UtuCFP Franc+68115,585142.4255
52West PapuaProvince of IndonesiaManokwariPapuan, Dutch Guilder, Indonesian Rupiah+62 9877,437140,375.6254,199.33

Other Areas in the World

S.N.Other AreasStatusCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1ÅlandSelf-governing or autonomous area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of crisis in Åland.MariehamnEuro+35827,5006,7872,620
2ArubaConstituent Country of the Kingdom of the NetherlandsOranjestadAruban florin+297110,000178.9169.08
3BonaireSpecial municipality of the NetherlandsKralendijkUnited States dollar+599 7 294114
4Canary IslandsSpanish autonomous communitySanta Cruz and Las PalmasEuro+342,205,2477,4472,875
5CeutaSpanish autonomous cityCeutaEuro+34 95276,8612811
6CuraçaoConstituent Country of the Kingdom of the NetherlandsWillemstadNetherlands Antillean guilder+599 9157,000444171.4
7French GuianaFrench overseas regionCayenneEuro+594250,10983,53432,253
8GreenlandConstituent Country of the Kingdom of DenmarkNuukDanish krone+29956,0002,166,086836,109
9GuadeloupeDepartment and region of FranceBasse-TerreEuro+590405,0001,628629
10MadeiraPortuguese autonomous regionFunchalEuro(+351) 291 XXX XXX267,785828320
11MartiniqueDepartment and region of FranceFort-de-FranceEuro+596383,0001,128436
12MayotteFrench overseas departmentMamoudzouEuro+262186,452374144
13MelillaSpanish autonomous cityMelillaEuro+34 95272,000208
14Northern IrelandPart of the UK, devolved government decided by the Good Friday Agreement.BelfastPound Sterling+441,810,86314,1305,456
15Pelagie IslandsItalian territoryLampedusa e LinosaEuro+396,30421.48
16Plazas de soberaníaSpanish overseas territoryN/AEuro+3474  
17RéunionFrench overseas regionSaint-DenisEuro+262793,0002,512970
18SabaSpecial municipality of the NetherlandsThe BottomUnited States dollar+599 4 135
19Saint BarthélemyFrench Overseas CollectivityGustaviaEuro+59010,000259.5
20Saint MartinFrench Overseas CollectivityMarigotEuro+59036,0008734
21Saint Pierre and MiquelonFrench Overseas CollectivitySaint-PierreEuro+5086,00024293
22San Andrés and ProvidenciaDepartment of ColombiaSan AndrésColombian peso+57 52.520.3
23Sint EustatiusSpecial municipality of the NetherlandsOranjestadUnited States dollar+599 3 218
24Sint MaartenConstituent Country of the Kingdom of the NetherlandsPhilipsburgNetherlands Antillean guilder+1 72139,0003413.1
25SvalbardSpecial territory of Norway, decided by the Svalbard Treaty.LongyearbyenNorwegian krone+472,01962,04523,956

Territorial Claims in Antarctica

Official Claims of Territories in Antarctica

S.N.Territory in AntarcticaStatusClaimantDateCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationClaim limitsArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Adélie LandDistrict of the French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrance1924Dumont d'Urville StationaEuro+262 262 00 233 (winter), 80 (summer)142°2'E to 136°11'E432,000166,796
2Argentine AntarcticaDepartment of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands ProvinceArgentina1942Handled by the province of Tierra del Fuego, whose capital is Ushuaia. 0054 + 02901 Esperanza and Marambio Stations: 0054 + 02964469 (2010 Census)25°W to 74°W1,461,597564,326
3Australian Antarctic TerritoryExternal dependent territory of AustraliaAustralia1933Davis StationAustralian Dollar+672 1xless than 1,000160°E to 142°2'E, 136°11'E to 44°38'E5,896,5002,276,651
4British Antarctic TerritoryOverseas territory of the United KingdomUnited Kingdom1908Halley BasePound sterling 250 (summer)20°W to 80°W1,709,400660,000
5Chilean Antarctic TerritoryCommune of Antártica ChilenaChile1940Villa Las EstrellasChilean Peso56 + 61115 (2012 Census)53°W to 90°W1,250,257482,727
6Peter I IslandDependency of NorwayNorway1929 Norwegian krone uninhabited68°50'S 90°35'W15459
7Queen Maud LandDependency of NorwayNorway1939OsloNorwegian krone maximum average of 40, Six are occupied year-round44°38'E to 20°W2,700,0001,042,476
8Ross DependencyDependency of New ZealandNew Zealand1923Scott BaseNew Zealand Dollar+64 240910-80 (Scott Base) 200-1,000 (McMurdo Station) 85-200 (South Pole Station) 0-90 (Zucchelli Station)150°W to 160°E450,000174,000

Overlapping Claims in Antarctica

S.N.ClaimantsClaim Limits
1Argentina, United Kingdom25°W to 53°W
2Argentina, Chile, United Kingdom53°W to 74°W
3Chile, United Kingdom74°W to 80°W

Unclaimed Territory in Antarctica

S.N.RegionUnclaimed limitsCurrencyPopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Marie Byrd Land90°W to 150°WPenguino20 to 30 People1,610,000620,000

Oceans of the World

S.N.OceanArea (km2)Area (% of Total)Volume (km3)Volume (% of Total)Avg. depth (m)Coastline (km)Coastline (% of Total)
1Pacific Ocean168,723,00046.60%669,880,00050.10%3,970135,66335.90%
2Atlantic Ocean85,133,00023.50%310,410,90023.30%3,646111,86629.60%
3Indian Ocean70,560,00019.50%264,000,00019.80%3,74166,52617.60%
4Antarctic / Southern Ocean21,960,0006.10%71,800,0005.40%3,27017,9684.80%
5Arctic Ocean15,558,0004.30%18,750,0001.40%1,20545,38912.00%

The oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface, making them the largest bodies of water on the planet. They are also home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, making them a vital part of the planet's ecosystem. In this article, we will take a closer look at the world's oceans, their geography, biodiversity, and significance.

The Five Oceans of the World

There are five recognized oceans in the world, listed in order of size:

Pacific Ocean: The largest of the five oceans, the Pacific covers an area of approximately 63.8 million square miles. It stretches from the western coast of North and South America to the eastern coast of Asia and Australia.

Atlantic Ocean: The second-largest ocean, the Atlantic covers an area of approximately 41.1 million square miles. It stretches from the western coast of Europe and Africa to the eastern coast of North and South America.

Indian Ocean: The third-largest ocean, the Indian covers an area of approximately 28.4 million square miles. It stretches from the eastern coast of Africa to the western coast of Australia and the Indian subcontinent.

Southern Ocean: The fourth-largest ocean, the Southern covers an area of approximately 7.8 million square miles. It encircles Antarctica and is sometimes also referred to as the Antarctic Ocean.

Arctic Ocean: The smallest of the five oceans, the Arctic covers an area of approximately 5.4 million square miles. It surrounds the North Pole and is mostly covered by ice.

Geography of the Oceans

The oceans are divided into several major basins, each with its own unique features:

Pacific Basin: The Pacific Basin is the largest ocean basin and includes the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding areas. It is home to the deepest point in the ocean, the Challenger Deep, which is located in the Mariana Trench.

Atlantic Basin: The Atlantic Basin includes the Atlantic Ocean and its surrounding areas. It is home to the longest mountain range in the world, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Indian Basin: The Indian Basin includes the Indian Ocean and its surrounding areas. It is known for its warm waters and diverse marine life.

Southern Basin: The Southern Basin includes the Southern Ocean and its surrounding areas. It is home to some of the coldest and roughest waters in the world.

Arctic Basin: The Arctic Basin includes the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding areas. It is mostly covered by ice and is home to unique animal species such as polar bears and walruses.

Biodiversity in the Oceans

The oceans are home to a vast array of plant and animal species, many of which are still undiscovered. Some of the most well-known marine animals include:

Whales: Whales are some of the largest animals in the world and are found in all of the world's oceans. There are several different species of whales, including humpback whales, blue whales, and killer whales.

Dolphins: Dolphins are highly intelligent and social animals that are found in all of the world's oceans. They are known for their playful behavior and acrobatic skills.

Sharks: Sharks are some of the most feared creatures in the ocean, but they are also some of the most important. They play a crucial role in the ocean's food chain and help to maintain a healthy balance of species.

Sea Turtles: Sea turtles are found in all of the world's oceans and are known for their distinctive shells and long lifespans. They play a critical role in the ocean's ecosystem by helping to maintain healthy seagrass beds and coral reefs.

Corals: Corals are small, stationary animals that form the basis of many of the ocean's most

List of World's Longest Rivers

RankRiverLength in kmLength in MilesDrainage Area in km2Average Discharge in m3/sOutflow
2Amazon6,4003,9767,000,000209,000Atlantic Ocean
3Yangtze6,3003,9171,800,00030,166East China Sea
4Mississippi6,2753,9022,980,00016,792Gulf of Mexico
5Yenisei5,5393,4452,580,00018,050Kara Sea
6Yellow River5,4643,395745,0002,571Bohai Sea
7Ob-Irtysh5,4103,3642,990,00012,475Gulf of Ob
8Paraná4,8803,0302,582,67222,000Río de la Plata
9Congo4,7002,9223,680,00041,800Atlantic Ocean
10Amur4,4442,7631,855,00011,400Sea of Okhotsk
11Lena4,4002,7362,490,00015,500Laptev Sea
12Mekong4,3502,705810,00016,000South China Sea
13Mackenzie4,2412,6371,790,00010,300Beaufort Sea
14Niger4,2002,6112,090,0005,589Gulf of Guinea
16Murray3,6722,2821,061,000767Southern Ocean
17Tocantins3,6502,270950,00013,598Atlantic Ocean (Marajó Bay), Amazon Delta
18Volga3,6452,2661,380,0008,080Caspian Sea
19Indus3,6102,250960,0007,160Arabian Sea
20Shatt al-Arab3,5962,236884,000856Persian Gulf
23Yukon3,1851,980850,0006,210Bering Sea
24São Francisco3,1801,976610,0003,300Atlantic Ocean
25Syr Darya3,0781,913219,000703Aral Sea
26Salween3,0601,901324,0003,153Andaman Sea
27Saint Lawrence3,0581,9001,030,00010,100Gulf of Saint Lawrence
28Rio Grande3,0571,900570,00082Gulf of Mexico
29Lower Tunguska2,9891,857473,0003,600Yenisei
30Danube-Breg2,8881,795817,0007,130Black Sea
31Irrawaddy River2,8091,745.80404,20013,000Andaman Sea
32Zambezi2,7401,7031,330,0004,880Mozambique Channel
34Ganges2,7041,6901,024,00012,037Bay of Bengal
35Amu2,6201,628534,7391,400Aral Sea
37Nelson2,5701,5971,093,0002,575Hudson Bay
39Kolyma2,5131,562644,0003,800East Siberian Sea
40Pilcomayo2,5001,553270,000 Paraguay
41Upper Ob-Katun2,4901,547  Ob
43Ural2,4281,509237,000475Caspian Sea
46Colorado2,3331,450390,0001,200Gulf of California
47Olenyok2,2921,424219,0001,210Laptev Sea
48Dnieper2,2871,421516,3001,670Black Sea
52Columbia2,2501,398415,2117,500Pacific Ocean
53Pearl2,2001,376437,00013,600South China Sea
57Orinoco2,1011,3061,380,00033,000Atlantic Ocean
58Tarim2,1001,305557,000 Lop Nur
59Xingu2,1001,305  Amazon
60Orange2,0921,300  Atlantic Ocean
61Brazos-Double2,0601,280  Gulf of Mexico
62Northern Salado2,0101,249  Paraná
63Vitim1,9781,229  Lena
64Tigris1,9501,212  Shatt al-Arab
65Songhua1,9271,197  Amur
66Tapajós1,9001,181  Amazon
67Don1,8701,162425,600935Sea of Azov
68Stony Tunguska1,8651,159240,000 Yenisey
69Pechora1,8091,124322,0004,100Barents Sea
71Limpopo1,8001,118413,000 Indian Ocean
72Chulym1,7991,118134,000 Ob
73Guaporé1,7491,087  Mamoré
74Indigirka1,7261,072360,4001,810East Siberian Sea
76Senegal1,6411,020419,659 Atlantic Ocean
77Uruguay1,6101,000370,000 Atlantic Ocean
78Blue Nile1,600994326,400 Nile
78Churchill1,600994  Hudson Bay
78Khatanga-Kotuy1,600994  Laptev Sea
78Okavango1,600994  Okavango Delta
78Volta1,600994  Gulf of Guinea
84Platte1,594990  Missouri
85Tobol1,591989  Irtysh
86Alazeya1,59098864,700 East Siberian Sea
87Jubba-Shebelle1,580982  Indian Ocean
88Içá1,575979  Amazon
90Han1,532952  Yangtze
91Kura/Mt'k'vari1,515941188,400575Caspian Sea
93Upper Murray1,500932  Lower Murray
94Guaviare1,497930  Orinoco
95Pecos1,490926  Rio Grande
96Murrumbidgee River1,48592384,917120Murray River
97Upper Yenisey1,480920  Yenisey
98Godavari1,465910312,8123,061Bay of Bengal
99Colorado1,438894  Gulf of Mexico
100Upper Tocantins1,427887  Tocantins
101Cooper-Barcoo1,420880  Lake Eyre
103Marañón1,415879  Amazon
104Dniester1,41187772,100310Black Sea
105Benue1,400870  Niger
105Ili (Yili)1,400870  Lake Balkhash
105Warburton-Georgina1,400870365,000 Lake Eyre
108Sutlej1,372852  Chenab
111Fraser1,368850220,0003,475Pacific Ocean
112Grande1,360845  Paraná
113Liao-Xiliao-Laoha1,345836  Bohai Sea
114Lachlan River1,33983284,70049Murrumbidgee River
115Narmada1,33381598,7961,447Arabian Sea
116Yalong1,323822  Yangtze
117Iguaçu1,320820  Paraná
117Olyokma1,320820  Lena
119Northern Dvina-Sukhona1,302809357,0523,332White Sea
120Krishna1,300808  Bay of Bengal
120Iriri1,300808  Xingu
122Lomami1,280795  Congo
123Ottawa1,271790146,3001,950Saint Lawrence
124Rio Grande de Santiago-Lerma1,270789119,543 Pacific Ocean
125Elbe-Vltava1,252778148,268711North Sea
126Zeya1,242772  Amur
127Juruena1,240771  Tapajós
128Upper Mississippi1,236768  Mississippi
129Rhine1,233768185,0002,330North Sea
130Athabasca1,23176595,300 Mackenzie
131Canadian1,223760  Arkansas
132North Saskatchewan1,220758  Saskatchewan
133Vistula-Narew-Bug1,213754194,4241,080Baltic Sea
134Vaal1,210752  Orange
135Shire1,200746  Zambezi
135Ogooué (or Ogowe)1,200746223,8564,706Atlantic Ocean
137Nen1,190739  Songhua
138Kızıl River1,182734115,000400Black Sea
140Green1,175730  Colorado (western U.S.)
141Milk1,173729  Missouri
142Mun - Chi1,162722  Mekong River
142White1,162722  Mississippi
144Chindwin1,158720  Ayeyarwady
145Sankuru1,150715  Kasai
147Red (Asia)1,149714143,7002,640Gulf of Tonkin
148James (Dakotas)1,143710  Missouri
148Kapuas1,143710  Natuna Sea
150Helmand1,130702  Hamun-i-Helmand
150Madre de Dios1,130702125,0004,915Beni
150Tietê1,130702  Paraná
150Vychegda1,130702121,0001160Northern Dvina
155Sepik1,12670077,700 Pacific Ocean
156Cimarron1,123698  Arkansas
157Anadyr1,120696  Gulf of Anadyr
157Paraíba do Sul1,120696  Atlantic Ocean
159Jialing River1,119695  Yangtze
160Liard1,115693  Mackenzie
162Huallaga1,100684  Marañón
162Draa1,100684  Atlantic Ocean
165Gambia1,094680  Atlantic Ocean
166Tyung1,09267949,800 Vilyuy
167Chenab1,086675  Indus
168Yellowstone1,080671114,260 Missouri
170Huai River1,078670270,0001,110Yangtze
172Chu1,06766362,500 none
173Seversky Donets1,05365498,900159Don
174Bermejo1,050652  Paraguay
174Fly1,050652  Gulf of Papua
174Kuskokwim1,050652  Bering Sea
177Tennessee1,049652  Ohio
178Oder-Warta1,045649118,861550Baltic Sea
179Aruwimi1,030640  Congo
180Chambal1,024636  Yamuna
181Daugava1,02063487,900678Gulf of Riga
182Gila1,015631  Colorado (western U.S.)
183Loire1,012629115,271840Atlantic Ocean
184Essequibo1,010628  Atlantic Ocean
186Tagus (Tajo/Tejo)1,00662580,100444Atlantic Ocean
187Flinders River1,004624109,000122Gulf of Carpentaria

Nile River

The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching for 6,650 kilometers (4,135 miles) from its source in Burundi to its mouth in Egypt. The river flows through eleven countries in Africa, including Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. The Nile has played a significant role in the development of civilization in Egypt, and is a vital source of water for the countries it flows through.

Amazon River

The Amazon River is the second-longest river in the world, with a length of 6,400 kilometers (4,000 miles). It flows through South America, passing through Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. The Amazon Basin is the largest rainforest in the world and is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including thousands of species of plants, birds, and mammals.

Yangtze River

The Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world, with a length of 6,300 kilometers (3,917 miles). The river flows through China, from its source in the Tibetan Plateau to its mouth at the East China Sea. The Yangtze is an important transportation route, and its basin is home to over 400 million people.

Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the fourth-longest river in the world, with a length of 6,275 kilometers (3,902 miles). It is located in North America and flows through ten US states, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The river is a significant transportation route and is used for shipping goods, such as grain, coal, and petroleum.

Yenisei River

The Yenisei River is the fifth-longest river in the world, with a length of 5,539 kilometers (3,445 miles). It is located in Russia and flows through Mongolia, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The river is an important source of hydroelectric power and is used for irrigation and transportation.

These are just a few examples of the world's longest rivers. Each of these rivers has played a significant role in the development of the countries and regions they flow through and continues to provide important resources to the people who live along their banks.

List of Highest Mountains in the World

RankMountain NameHeight (rounded) in MetersHeight (rounded) in FeetsProminence (rounded) in MetersProminence (rounded) in FeetsRangeParent MountainCountry
1Mount Everest, Sagarmatha, Chomolungma8,84829,0298,84829,029Mahalangur Himalaya-Nepal, China
2K28,61128,2514,02013,190Baltoro KarakoramMount EverestPakistan, China
3Kangchenjunga8,58628,1693,92212,867Kangchenjunga HimalayaMount EverestNepal, India
4Lhotse8,51627,9406102,000Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina, Nepal
5Makalu8,48527,8382,3787,802Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestNepal, China
6Cho Oyu8,18826,8642,3407,680Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina, Nepal
7Dhaulagiri I8,16726,7953,35711,014Dhaulagiri HimalayaK2Nepal
8Manaslu8,16326,7813,09210,144Manaslu HimalayaCho OyuNepal
9Nanga Parbat8,12626,6604,60815,118Nanga Parbat HimalayaDhaulagiriPakistan
10Annapurna I8,09126,5452,9849,790Annapurna HimalayaCho OyuNepal
11Gasherbrum I, Hidden Peak, K58,08026,5102,1557,070Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan, China
12Broad Peak8,05126,4141,7015,581Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IChina, Pakistan
13Gasherbrum II, K48,03526,3621,5245,000Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan, China
14Shishapangma, Gosainthan8,02726,3352,8979,505Jugal HimalayaCho OyuChina
15Gyachung Kang7,95226,0896722,205Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuNepal, China
16Gasherbrum III, K3a7,94626,0703551,165Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIPakistan, China
17Annapurna II7,93726,0402,4377,995Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna INepal
18Gasherbrum IV, K37,93226,0247122,336Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIIPakistan
19Himalchuli7,89325,8961,6335,358Manaslu HimalayaManasluNepal
20Distaghil Sar7,88425,8662,5258,284Hispar KarakoramK2Pakistan
21Ngadi Chuli7,87125,8231,0113,317Manaslu HimalayaManasluNepal
22Nuptse7,86425,8013051,001Mahalangur HimalayaLhotseNepal
23Khunyang Chhish7,82325,6661,7655,791Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
24Masherbrum, K17,82125,6592,4578,061Masherbrum KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan
25Nanda Devi7,81625,6433,13910,299Garhwal HimalayaDhaulagiriIndia
26Chomo Lonzo7,80425,6045901,940Mahalangur HimalayaMakaluChina
27Batura Sar7,79525,5743,11810,230Batura KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
28Rakaposhi7,78825,5512,8189,245Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
29Namcha Barwa7,78225,5314,10613,471Assam HimalayaKangchenjungaChina
30Kanjut Sar7,76025,4601,6605,450Hispar KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
31Kamet7,75625,4462,8259,268Garhwal HimalayaNanda DeviIndia
32Dhaulagiri II7,75125,4302,3977,864Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiriNepal
33Saltoro Kangri, K107,74225,4002,1607,090Saltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia, Pakistan
34Kumbhakarna, Jannu7,71125,2991,0363,399Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaNepal
35Tirich Mir7,70825,2893,91012,830Hindu KushBatura SarPakistan
36Molamenqing7,70325,2724331,421Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaChina
37Gurla Mandhata7,69425,2432,7889,147Nalakankar HimalayaDhaulagiriChina
38Saser Kangri I, K227,67225,1712,3047,559Saser KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia
39Chogolisa7,66525,1481,6245,328Masherbrum KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan
40Dhaulagiri IV7,66125,1354691,539Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IINepal
41Kongur Tagh7,64925,0953,58511,762Kongur Shan (Eastern Pamirs)Distaghil SarChina
42Dhaulagiri V7,61824,9933401,120Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
43Shispare7,61124,9701,2404,070Batura KarakoramBatura SarPakistan
44Trivor7,57724,8599973,271Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
45Gangkhar Puensum7,57024,8402,9959,826Kula Kangri HimalayaKangchenjungaBhutan, China
46Gongga Shan, Minya Konka7,55624,7903,64211,949Daxue Mountains (Hengduan Shan)Mount EverestChina
47Annapurna III7,55524,7877032,306Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna INepal
48Skyang Kangri7,54524,7541,0853,560Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan, China
49Changtse7,54324,7475141,686Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina
50Kula Kangri7,53824,7311,6545,427Kula Kangri HimalayaGangkhar PuensumChina, Bhutan
51Kongur Tiube7,53024,7008402,760Kongur Shan (Eastern Pamirs)Kongur TaghChina
52Annapurna IV7,52524,688255837Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurnaNepal
53Mamostong Kangri7,51624,6591,8035,915Rimo KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia
54Saser Kangri II E7,51324,6491,4584,783Saser KarakoramSaser Kangri IIndia
55Muztagh Ata7,50924,6362,6988,852Muztagata (Eastern Pamirs)Kongur TaghChina
56Ismoil Somoni Peak7,49524,5903,40211,161Pamir (Academy of Sciences Range)Muztagh AtaTajikistan
57Saser Kangri III7,49524,5908352,740Saser KarakoramSaser Kangri IIndia
58Noshaq7,49224,5802,0246,640Hindu KushTirich MirAfghanistan, Pakistan
59Pumari Chhish7,49224,5808842,900Hispar KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
60Passu Sar7,47624,5286472,123Batura KarakoramBatura SarPakistan
61Yukshin Gardan Sar7,46924,5051,3744,508Hispar KarakoramPumari ChhishPakistan
62Teram Kangri I7,46224,4821,7035,587Siachen KarakoramGasherbrum IChina, India
63Jongsong Peak7,46224,4821,2984,259Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, China, Nepal
64Malubiting7,45824,4692,1937,195Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramRakaposhiPakistan
65Gangapurna7,45524,4595631,847Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna IIINepal
66Jengish Chokusu, Tömür, Pik Pobedy7,43924,4064,14813,609Tian ShanIsmail Samani PeakKyrgyzstan, China
67Sunanda Devi, Nanda Devi East7,43424,390229751Garhwal HimalayaNanda DeviIndia
68K127,42824,3701,9786,490Saltoro KarakoramSaltoro KangriIndia, Pakistan
69Yangra, Ganesh I7,42224,3502,3527,717Ganesh HimalayaShishapangmaChina, Nepal
70Sia Kangri7,42224,3506422,106Siachen KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan, China
71Momhil Sar7,41424,3249072,976Hispar KarakoramTrivorPakistan
72Kabru N7,41224,3187202,360Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, Nepal
73Skil Brum7,41024,3101,1523,780Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan
74Haramosh Peak7,40924,3082,2777,470Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramMalubitingPakistan
75Istor-o-Nal7,40324,2881,0433,422Hindu KushNoshaqPakistan
76Ghent Kangri7,40124,2811,4934,898Saltoro KarakoramSaltoro KangriIndia, Pakistan
77Ultar7,38824,2396882,257Batura KarakoramShisparePakistan
78Rimo I7,38524,2291,4284,685Rimo KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia
79Churen Himal7,38524,2296502,130Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
80Teram Kangri III7,38224,2195201,710Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia, China
81Sherpi Kangri7,38024,2101,3204,330Saltoro KarakoramGhent KangriIndia, Pakistan
82Labuche Kang7,36724,1701,9576,421Labuche HimalayaCho OyuChina
83Kirat Chuli7,36224,1541,1683,832Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaNepal, India
84Abi Gamin7,35524,131217712Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia, China
85Gimmigela Chuli, The Twins7,35024,1104321,417Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, Nepal
86Nangpai Gosum7,35024,1104271,401Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuNepal, China
87Saraghrar7,34924,1111,9796,493Hindu KushNoshaqPakistan
88Talung7,34924,1113661,201Kangchenjunga HimalayaKabruNepal, India
89Jomolhari, Chomo Lhari7,32624,0352,3417,680Jomolhari HimalayaGangkhar PuensumBhutan, China
90Chamlang7,32124,0191,2414,072Mahalangur HimalayaLhotseNepal
91Chongtar7,31523,9991,2954,249Baltoro KarakoramSkil BrumChina
92Baltoro Kangri7,31223,9901,1403,740Masherbrum KarakoramChogolisaPakistan
93Siguang Ri7,30923,9806692,195Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuChina
94The Crown, Huang Guan Shan7,29523,9341,9196,296Yengisogat KarakoramSkil Brum (K2)China
95Gyala Peri7,29423,9302,9429,652Assam HimalayaMount EverestChina
96Porong Ri7,29223,9245121,680Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaChina
97Baintha Brakk, The Ogre7,28523,9011,8916,204Panmah KarakoramKanjut SarPakistan
98Yutmaru Sar7,28323,8946802,230Hispar KarakoramYukshin Gardan SarPakistan
99K6, Baltistan Peak7,28223,8911,9626,437Masherbrum KarakoramChogolisaPakistan
100Kangpenqing, Gang Benchhen7,28123,8881,3454,413Baiku HimalayaShishapangmaChina
101Muztagh Tower7,27623,8711,7105,610Baltoro KarakoramSkil BrumPakistan, China
102Mana Peak7,27223,8587322,402Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia
103Dhaulagiri VI7,26823,8454881,601Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
104Diran7,26623,8391,3294,360Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramMalubitingPakistan
105Labuche Kang III, Labuche Kang East7,25023,7905701,870Labuche HimalayaLabuche HimilayaChina
106Putha Hiunchuli7,24623,7731,1513,776Dhaulagiri HimalayaChuren HimalNepal
107Apsarasas Kangri7,24523,7706071,991Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia, China
108Mukut Parbat7,24223,7606832,241Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia, China
109Rimo III7,23323,7306132,011Rimo KarakoramRimo IIndia
110Langtang Lirung7,22723,7111,5345,033Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaNepal
111Karjiang7,22123,6918952,936Kula Kangri HimalayaKula KangriChina
112Annapurna Dakshin (Annapurna South)7,21923,6847692,523Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurnaNepal
113Khartaphu7,21323,6657122,336Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina
114Tongshanjiabu7,20723,6451,7575,764Lunana HimalayaGangkhar PuensumBhutan, China
115Malangutti Sar7,20723,6455071,663Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
116Noijin Kangsang, Norin Kang7,20623,6422,1607,090Nagarze HimalayaGangkhar PuensumChina
117Langtang Ri7,20523,6386652,182Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaNepal, China
118Kangphu Kang, Shimokangri7,20423,6351,2444,081Lunana HimalayaTongshanjiabuBhutan, China
119Singhi Kangri7,20223,6297302,400Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIIIndia, China
120Lupghar Sar7,20023,6007302,400Hispar KarakoramMomhil SarPakistan

Mount Everest, also known as Sagarmatha in Nepal and Chomolungma in Tibet, is the highest mountain in the world at 8,848.86 meters (29,031.69 feet). It is located in the Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet. The mountain was first climbed by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay on May 29, 1953.

K2, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, is the second-highest mountain in the world at 8,611 meters (28,251 feet). It is located on the border between Pakistan and China. K2 is known for its difficulty and danger, and has been climbed by only a few hundred people, compared to thousands who have climbed Everest.

Kangchenjunga is the third-highest mountain in the world at 8,586 meters (28,169 feet). It is located on the border between Nepal and India. Kangchenjunga is known for its five peaks, with the highest peak, Kangchenjunga Main, being the third-highest peak in the world.

Lhotse is the fourth-highest mountain in the world at 8,516 meters (27,940 feet). It is located on the border between Nepal and Tibet, and is connected to Mount Everest by the South Col. Lhotse is known for its steep faces, and is considered one of the most challenging climbs in the world.

Makalu is the fifth-highest mountain in the world at 8,485 meters (27,838 feet). It is located on the border between Nepal and Tibet, and is known for its pyramid-shaped peak. Makalu has been climbed by only a few hundred people.

These are just a few of the highest mountains in the world. There are many other peaks that are also considered among the highest, including Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu, and Annapurna. Climbing any of these mountains is considered a major achievement in the world of mountaineering.

List of World's Deserts by Area

RankDesert NameTypeArea (km2)Area (sq mi)LocationCountry(s)
1Antarctic DesertPolar ice and tundra14,200,0005,482,651Antarctica-
2Arctic DesertPolar ice and tundra13,900,0005,366,820Eastern Europe, Northern America, Northern Asia, Northern EuropeUnited States, Canada, Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Jan Mayen, Russia, Svalbard, and Sweden
3Sahara DesertSubtropical9,200,0003,552,140Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Western AfricaAlgeria, Western Sahara, Chad, Eritrea, Egypt, Mali, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Tunisia, and Sudan
4Great AustralianSubtropical2,700,0001,042,476AustraliaAustralia
5Arabian DesertSubtropical2,330,000899,618Western AsiaYemen, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia
6Gobi DesertCold winter1,295,000500,002Eastern AsiaChina, and Mongolia
7Kalahari DesertSubtropical900,000347,492Southern AfricaSouth Africa, Botswana, and Namibia
8Patagonian DesertCold winter673,000259,847South AmericaArgentina
9Syrian DesertSubtropical500,000193,051Western AsiaIraq, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia
10Great BasinCold winter492,098190,000Northern AmericaUnited States
11Chihuahuan DesertSubtropical453,248175,000Northern AmericaUnited States, and Mexico
12Karakum DesertCold winter350,000135,136Central AsiaTurkmenistan
13Great VictoriaSubtropical348,750134,653Western Australia, South AustraliaAustralia
14Colorado PlateauCold winter337,000130,116Northern AmericaUnited States
15Sonoran DesertSubtropical310,000119,692Central America, Northern AmericaUnited States and Mexico
16Kyzylkum DesertCold winter300,000115,831Central AsiaUzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan
17Taklamakan DesertCold winter270,000104,248Eastern AsiaChina
18Ogden DesertSubtropical256,00098,842Eastern AfricaEthiopia, Somaliland, and Somalia
19Thar DesertSubtropical238,25477,220Southern AsiaPakistan and India
20Puntland DesertSubtropical200,00077,220Eastern AfricaSomalia
21Ustyurt PlateauTemperate200,00077,220Central AsiaKazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan
22Guban DesertSubtropical175,00067,568Eastern AfricaSomalia / Somaliland
23Namib DesertCool coastal160,00061,776Middle Africa, Southern AfricaAngola, South Africa, and Namibia
24Dasht-e MargoSubtropical150,00057,915Southern AsiaAfghanistan
25Registan DesertSubtropical146,00056,371Southern AsiaAfghanistan
26Atacama DesertMild coastal140,00054,054South AmericaPeru and Chile
27Danakil DesertSubtropical137,00052,896Eastern AfricaDjibouti, Ethiopia, and Eritrea
28Mojave DesertSubtropical124,00047,877Northern AmericaUnited States
29Chalbi DesertSubtropical100,00038,610Eastern AfricaKenya
30Columbia BasinCold winter83,13932,100Northern AmericaUnited States and Canada
31Dasht-e KavirSubtropical77,00029,730Southern AsiaIran
32Ferlo DesertSubtropical70,00027,027Western AfricaSenegal
33Ladakh DesertCold winter59,14622,836Southern AsiaIndia
34Dasht-e LutSubtropical52,00020,077Southern AsiaIran

Deserts are vast regions of land that receive very little rainfall, making it difficult for vegetation to grow and thrive. Some deserts are hot and dry, while others are cold and icy. The world's largest deserts are located in various parts of the world and cover a significant amount of land area.

Antarctic Desert

The Antarctic Desert is the largest desert in the world, covering approximately 14 million square kilometers. It is located in the southernmost part of the world, on the continent of Antarctica. The region is characterized by extremely cold temperatures and low precipitation, with much of the water locked up in ice sheets.

Arctic Desert

The Arctic Desert is the second largest desert in the world, covering approximately 13.7 million square kilometers. It is located in the northernmost part of the world, around the Arctic Circle. The region is characterized by extremely cold temperatures and low precipitation, with much of the water locked up in snow and ice.

Sahara Desert

The Sahara Desert is the largest hot desert in the world, covering approximately 9.2 million square kilometers. It is located in North Africa, and spans across several countries, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Chad, and Niger. The Sahara is known for its high temperatures, sand dunes, and vast stretches of barren land.

Arabian Desert

The Arabian Desert is the fourth largest desert in the world, covering approximately 2.3 million square kilometers. It is located in the Middle East, spanning across several countries, including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. The Arabian Desert is known for its hot temperatures, sand dunes, and occasional oases.

Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert is the fifth largest desert in the world, covering approximately 1.3 million square kilometers. It is located in Asia, spanning across northern and northwestern China and southern Mongolia. The Gobi Desert is known for its extreme temperature fluctuations, ranging from hot summers to cold winters, and its unique landscapes of sand dunes, mountains, and rocky terrain.

Deserts are harsh and challenging environments, but they also provide unique habitats for many plant and animal species that have adapted to survive in these extreme conditions. They are also important sources of natural resources, including minerals and fossil fuels.

World Politics

World politics is the study of how different countries interact with each other in the international arena, including economic, social, and political relationships. It involves the analysis of international organizations, treaties, alliances, and conflicts between states. It is a constantly evolving field, shaped by various historical, cultural, and economic factors.

One of the key elements of world politics is the balance of power between nations. This refers to the distribution of military and economic power among states and how it impacts their relationships with one another. Historically, the balance of power has been a major factor in shaping international relations. It was the driving force behind many conflicts, such as the World Wars and the Cold War.

In recent times, globalization has become a significant factor in world politics. The rise of multinational corporations and the increased flow of information and ideas across borders has brought about greater interdependence between nations. This has led to the formation of new global institutions, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the International Criminal Court, which aim to facilitate cooperation between countries.

However, globalization has also led to new challenges and conflicts, such as the increasing gap between the rich and poor, environmental degradation, and terrorism. These issues have sparked debates on how to balance the benefits of globalization with the need to protect national sovereignty and cultural identity.

One of the most significant challenges facing world politics today is climate change. The scientific consensus is clear that human activity is causing global temperatures to rise at an alarming rate, with devastating consequences for the planet. Addressing this issue will require a coordinated global effort, with countries working together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition to renewable energy sources.

Another important issue in world politics is the rise of authoritarianism and populism. In recent years, we have seen the erosion of democratic norms and the rise of leaders who openly flout the rule of law and human rights. This has led to concerns about the future of democracy and the potential for conflict between democratic and authoritarian regimes.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has also had a significant impact on world politics. The virus has exposed weaknesses in global health systems and highlighted the need for greater international cooperation. It has also led to new forms of nationalism and protectionism, as countries seek to prioritize their own interests in the face of a global crisis.

In conclusion, world politics is a complex and ever-changing field, shaped by a wide range of factors. It involves the analysis of international relations, global institutions, and key challenges facing the world today. From the balance of power and globalization to climate change and authoritarianism, there are many important issues that require our attention and cooperation. By working together, we can create a more peaceful and prosperous world for all.

Religions in the World

Religion is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that has played a significant role in shaping human societies throughout history. From ancient times to the present day, various religions have emerged and spread across the globe, influencing everything from art, politics, and philosophy to social norms and cultural practices.

Here is an overview of some of the major religions in the world:


Christianity is the world's largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers. It is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe is the son of God. Christianity is divided into several denominations, including Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox Christianity. Each denomination has its own set of beliefs, practices, and rituals.


Islam is the second-largest religion in the world, with over 1.8 billion followers. It is based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad, who Muslims believe is the last and final prophet sent by God. Islam is characterized by its five pillars, which include the declaration of faith, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca.


Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world, with roots dating back to ancient India. It is a diverse religion with many different beliefs and practices, but it is generally characterized by its emphasis on karma, dharma, and reincarnation. Hinduism is also notable for its vast pantheon of gods and goddesses, including Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.


Buddhism is a religion that originated in ancient India and is based on the teachings of the Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhists believe in the Four Noble Truths, which include the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering, and the truth of the path that leads to the cessation of suffering. Buddhism also emphasizes mindfulness, meditation, and the pursuit of enlightenment.


Judaism is the oldest Abrahamic religion and is based on the belief in one God. It is characterized by its emphasis on the Hebrew Bible, which includes the Torah and other sacred texts. Judaism also includes a rich tradition of rituals and practices, including the celebration of the Sabbath and the observance of dietary laws.


Sikhism is a religion that originated in India and is based on the teachings of Guru Nanak. It is characterized by its emphasis on the oneness of God, the importance of service and charity, and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment. Sikhs also wear distinctive turbans and other articles of clothing as a symbol of their faith.


Confucianism is a philosophy and ethical system that originated in ancient China. It is based on the teachings of Confucius, who emphasized the importance of social harmony, respect for elders, and the pursuit of moral excellence. Confucianism also includes a system of rituals and practices that are meant to promote social order and stability.


Taoism is a religion and philosophical system that originated in ancient China. It is based on the concept of the Tao, which refers to the natural order and flow of the universe. Taoism emphasizes the importance of simplicity, humility, and harmony with nature. It also includes a system of practices such as meditation and martial arts.


Shintoism is a religion that originated in Japan and is based on the worship of kami, or spirits, that are believed to inhabit the natural world. Shintoism is characterized by its emphasis on ritual purity, respect for ancestors, and the importance of nature. It also includes a rich tradition of festivals and rituals.

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