Canada Map

Canada Map

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About Canada Map

Expore the map of Canada, covering 3.85 million square miles (9.98 million square kilometres), making it the world's 2nd largest country by total area.

Provinces of Canada

S.N.ProvincePostal Abbrev.CapitalLargest CityEntered ConfederationPopulationArea (km2) LandArea (km2) WaterArea (km2) TotalOfficial Language(s)Seats CommonsSeats Senate
1OntarioONTorontoTorontoJuly 1, 186714,733,119917,741158,6541,076,395English12124
2QuebecQCQuebec CityMontrealJuly 1, 18678,575,7791,356,128185,9281,542,056French7824
3Nova ScotiaNSHalifaxHalifaxJuly 1, 1867979,11553,3381,94655,284English1110
4New BrunswickNBFrederictonMonctonJuly 1, 1867781,31571,4501,45872,908English, French1010
5ManitobaMBWinnipegWinnipegJuly 15, 18701,379,584553,55694,241647,797English146
6British ColumbiaBCVictoriaVancouverJuly 20, 18715,145,851925,18619,549944,735English426
7Prince Edward IslandPECharlottetownCharlottetownJuly 1, 1873159,7135,66005,660English44
8SaskatchewanSKReginaSaskatoonSeptember 1, 19051,177,884591,67059,366651,036English146
9AlbertaABEdmontonCalgarySeptember 1, 19054,428,112642,31719,531661,848English346
10Newfoundland and LabradorNLSt. John'sSt. John'sMarch 31, 1949520,998373,87231,340405,212English76

Territories of Canada

S.N.TerritoryPostal AbbreviationCapital and Largest CityEntered ConfederationPopulationArea (km2) LandArea (km2) WaterArea (km2) TotalOfficial LanguagesSeats CommonsSeats Senate
1Northwest TerritoriesNTYellowknifeJuly 15, 187045,0741,183,085163,0211,346,106Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ11
2YukonYTWhitehorseJune 13, 189842,176474,3918,052482,443English, French11
3NunavutNUIqaluitApril 1, 199939,2851,936,113157,0772,093,190Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, English, French11

About Canada

Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area, with a population of over 38 million people. Located in North America, Canada is bordered by the United States to the south and northwest, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The country is known for its natural beauty, diverse culture, and strong economy.

Canada's history dates back thousands of years, with Indigenous peoples living on the land long before European settlers arrived. The country was officially established as a British colony in 1867, and it gained independence in 1931. Today, Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, meaning that the Queen of England is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government.

Canada is a multicultural nation, with a population made up of people from all over the world. The country has two official languages, English and French, and many Canadians are bilingual. The Indigenous peoples of Canada, including the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, also play a significant role in the country's cultural heritage.

One of Canada's most well-known landmarks is the stunning Niagara Falls, which is located on the border between Canada and the United States. Other popular tourist destinations include Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, and Lake Louise in Alberta, and the Rocky Mountains in British Columbia.

Canada's economy is highly diversified, with a mix of natural resources, manufacturing, and services industries. The country is the world's third-largest producer of natural gas and has significant reserves of oil, timber, and minerals. Canada is also a major producer of wheat, canola, and other agricultural products.

In recent years, Canada has become a global leader in technology and innovation, with a thriving startup scene and a highly educated workforce. The country's major cities, including Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, are home to many high-tech companies and research institutions.

Canada is also known for its progressive social policies, including universal healthcare, same-sex marriage, and legal recreational cannabis. The country has a high standard of living, with a strong social safety net and low levels of income inequality.

Overall, Canada is a diverse and vibrant country with a rich cultural heritage, stunning natural beauty, and a strong economy. Whether you are interested in exploring the great outdoors, experiencing diverse cultures, or pursuing a career in a cutting-edge industry, Canada offers something for everyone.

History of Canada

The history of Canada spans thousands of years, beginning with the arrival of Indigenous peoples to the continent and continuing with the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. Over the centuries, Canada has undergone many changes, both in terms of its demographics and its political and social structures.

Indigenous Peoples

The first inhabitants of what is now Canada were Indigenous peoples, who arrived on the continent as early as 40,000 years ago. These peoples were highly diverse, with distinct cultures, languages, and traditions. They developed complex societies and economies, and established trade networks that spanned the continent.

The arrival of Europeans

The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century marked a major turning point in Canadian history. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River and claimed the land for France. The French established a fur trade with the Indigenous peoples of the region, which became a major economic driver in the area.

In the 18th century, the British began to establish colonies in Canada, starting with Nova Scotia in 1713. Over the next century, they established other colonies, including Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and what is now Ontario and Quebec.

Confederation and the Canadian Nation

In 1867, the British North America Act united the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into a single country, known as the Dominion of Canada. Over the next century, Canada grew in size and strength, acquiring vast territories to the north and west and playing a key role in international affairs.

One of the defining features of Canadian history has been its relationship with its southern neighbor, the United States. While the two countries share a long and largely peaceful border, they have also had a number of disputes, including over trade and territorial claims.

Recent History

In the 20th century, Canada underwent significant social and political changes. In the wake of the First World War, the country experienced a period of economic growth and cultural development known as the Roaring Twenties. However, the Great Depression of the 1930s hit Canada hard, leading to high unemployment and economic instability.

During the Second World War, Canada played a key role in the Allied effort, with Canadian soldiers serving in major campaigns in Europe and Asia. After the war, Canada experienced a period of prosperity, with a growing economy and a strong social safety net.

In the latter half of the 20th century, Canada continued to evolve, with a growing focus on multiculturalism and a greater recognition of the country's Indigenous peoples. In 1982, the Constitution Act entrenched a number of rights and freedoms, including Indigenous rights, into Canadian law.

Today, Canada is a modern and prosperous country, with a highly diverse population and a strong economy. While the country faces challenges, such as ongoing disputes with Indigenous peoples over land rights and environmental concerns, it remains a global leader in many areas, including healthcare, education, and social welfare.

Geography of Canada

Canada is a country located in North America, known for its vast and diverse geography. The country stretches over 9.9 million square kilometers, making it the second-largest country in the world after Russia. With such a large area, it is no surprise that Canada has a wide range of physical features, including mountains, plains, lakes, rivers, and forests.

To understand Canada's geography, it is helpful to divide the country into five regions: the Atlantic region, the Central region, the Prairie region, the West Coast region, and the North.

The Atlantic region includes the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. This region is known for its rugged coastline, which features numerous bays, inlets, and fjords. It is also home to the Appalachian Mountains, which run through New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The region's climate is influenced by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, which brings mild temperatures and moist air to the area.

The Central region is located in the heart of Canada and includes the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. This region is characterized by the Canadian Shield, a large area of exposed rock that was formed over millions of years by glaciers. The region also includes the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, which are among the largest freshwater lakes in the world. The region's climate varies widely, with cold winters and hot summers.

The Prairie region is located in the western part of Canada and includes the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. This region is characterized by its flat, treeless landscape, which is ideal for farming and ranching. The region also includes the Canadian Rockies, a mountain range that runs through Alberta and British Columbia. The Prairie region has a semi-arid climate, with hot summers and cold winters.

The West Coast region includes the province of British Columbia and is located on the Pacific Ocean. This region is known for its rugged coastline, which includes fjords, inlets, and numerous islands. The region is also home to the Coastal Mountains and the Rocky Mountains, which provide a stunning backdrop for the area. The West Coast region has a mild climate, with rainy winters and mild summers.

The North is the largest and most sparsely populated region of Canada, covering almost 40% of the country's land area. This region includes the three territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. The North is characterized by its rugged terrain, including vast expanses of tundra, mountains, and forests. The region is also home to many Indigenous peoples, who have lived in the area for thousands of years. The North has a subarctic and arctic climate, with long, cold winters and short, cool summers.

In addition to these five regions, Canada also has a number of important bodies of water, including the Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes, the Mackenzie River, and the St. Lawrence River. These waterways are important for transportation, fishing, and tourism.

Overall, Canada's geography is diverse and stunningly beautiful. Its vast and varied landscapes provide a home to a wide range of flora and fauna, and the country's natural resources have played an important role in its development and growth.

Economy of Canada

The economy of Canada is one of the largest and most prosperous in the world. Canada is a member of the G7, a group of the world's largest and most advanced economies, and is ranked as the 10th largest economy by nominal GDP and 17th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country's economy is characterized by a highly developed service sector, abundant natural resources, and a strong manufacturing base. In this article, we will explore the various aspects of Canada's economy in more detail.

GDP and Growth

Canada's nominal gross domestic product (GDP) was approximately $1.6 trillion USD in 2020, making it the 10th largest economy in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the GDP of Canada was approximately $1.8 trillion USD in 2020, which ranks it as the 17th largest economy in the world. The country has a diverse economy with significant strengths in natural resources, manufacturing, and services. The Canadian economy is also highly integrated with the global economy, with a large portion of its exports going to the United States.

The Canadian economy has been growing steadily over the past few years. In 2019, the economy grew by 1.7% according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, in 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the economy, causing it to contract by 5.4%. The economy is expected to recover in 2021, with the IMF forecasting a growth rate of 5%. The Bank of Canada has also indicated that it expects the economy to recover to pre-pandemic levels by the middle of 2022.

Natural Resources

Canada is rich in natural resources, including oil, natural gas, minerals, and timber. The country is the world's fourth-largest producer of oil and has significant reserves of natural gas. Canada is also a major producer of minerals such as gold, silver, copper, and zinc. The country's vast forests make it one of the world's largest producers of timber.

The natural resource sector is a significant contributor to Canada's economy. According to Natural Resources Canada, the natural resource sector accounted for 16% of Canada's GDP in 2018 and employed over 1.7 million Canadians. However, the sector is subject to fluctuations in commodity prices and demand, which can impact the overall health of the Canadian economy.


Manufacturing is another important sector of the Canadian economy, with the country being home to many large manufacturing companies. The manufacturing sector in Canada is diverse, with a range of industries including aerospace, automotive, chemicals, and food processing. Canada's manufacturing sector is also highly integrated with the global economy, with many Canadian manufacturers exporting products to the United States, Mexico, and other countries.

According to Statistics Canada, the manufacturing sector contributed approximately 10% to Canada's GDP in 2019. The sector also employed over 1.5 million Canadians in 2019. However, like the natural resource sector, the manufacturing sector is subject to fluctuations in global demand and economic conditions.


The service sector is the largest contributor to Canada's economy, accounting for approximately 70% of GDP. The service sector includes a wide range of industries, including finance, insurance, real estate, retail, and healthcare. The service sector is also the largest employer in Canada, employing over 19 million Canadians in 2019.

The Canadian service sector is highly developed and innovative, with many companies leading in their respective industries. The finance and insurance sector, for example, is dominated by large Canadian banks and insurance companies. Canada is also a leader in healthcare, with a publicly funded healthcare system that provides universal coverage to all Canadians.

Government and Politics of Canada

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as the monarch and Head of State. The country has a multi-party political system, with the major parties being the Liberal Party, Conservative Party, and New Democratic Party (NDP). The government of Canada operates on the principles of a Westminster-style parliamentary system, where the executive branch (the Cabinet) is accountable to the elected legislative branch (Parliament).

The Parliament of Canada consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the Senate. The House of Commons is composed of 338 members who are elected to represent constituencies across the country. Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected through a first-past-the-post system, which means that the candidate with the most votes in a particular constituency wins the seat. The Senate, on the other hand, is composed of 105 members who are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister of Canada is the head of government and is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is responsible for selecting the members of the Cabinet, who are responsible for the day-to-day administration of the government. The Cabinet is made up of ministers who are responsible for specific government departments and agencies, such as the Minister of Finance, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of National Defence.

The Canadian judiciary is independent of the government and consists of the Supreme Court of Canada, federal courts, and provincial courts. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court in the country and is responsible for interpreting the Canadian Constitution and ensuring that the laws of the land are applied fairly and consistently.

Canada's federal system of government divides powers between the federal government and the provinces and territories. The federal government has jurisdiction over issues such as national defence, foreign affairs, and criminal law, while the provinces and territories have jurisdiction over areas such as healthcare, education, and natural resources. In addition to the federal and provincial/territorial governments, there are also municipal governments, which are responsible for local issues such as waste management and public transit.

Canada's political landscape is diverse, with a range of political parties representing various ideologies and interests. The Liberal Party, which is currently in power, is considered centrist and advocates for progressive social policies, economic growth, and environmental protection. The Conservative Party, which is the official opposition, is considered centre-right and advocates for free markets, lower taxes, and strong national defence. The NDP is considered centre-left and advocates for social justice, workers' rights, and environmental protection.

In addition to these major parties, there are several smaller parties that have representation in Parliament, including the Bloc Québécois (which advocates for Quebec sovereignty), the Green Party (which advocates for environmental protection), and the People's Party of Canada (which advocates for limited government, lower taxes, and immigration restrictions).

Canada's political system is often characterized by its stability and consensus-building approach. Although there are often vigorous debates and disagreements between political parties and between different levels of government, there is generally a commitment to working together to find common ground and reach compromises that benefit the country as a whole. This approach has allowed Canada to weather difficult economic and social challenges, such as the 2008 global financial crisis and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

In conclusion, the government and politics of Canada are characterized by a federal parliamentary democracy, a multi-party political system, and a commitment to stability and consensus-building. The country's political landscape is diverse, with a range of parties representing various ideologies and interests, and the judiciary is independent of the government. Canada's federal system of government divides powers between the federal government and the provinces and territories, and the country's political leaders are committed to working together to find common ground and reach compromises that benefit the nation.

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