World Map HD

Here is the large world map hd showing 195 countries of the world, according to most international standards. This includes 193 member states of the United Nations and two observer states, namely the Holy See (Vatican City) and Palestine. However, the count can vary depending on the recognition status of certain territories. For example, Taiwan is generally considered a separate entity but is not universally recognized as an independent country. Similarly, some regions like Kosovo have declared independence but are not recognized by all UN member states. Therefore, the exact number of countries can be a subject of debate, depending on the criteria used for recognition.

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About World Map HD

Explore this large world map showing all sovereign countries of the World. All the recognized countries are labeled on this world map image.

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The World Map

A world map shows most or all of the Earth's surface. Making a world map is tricky because you have to fit a round, 3D world onto a flat, 2D surface. This causes some parts to look different than they really are. This problem is even bigger in world maps compared to smaller maps. Various methods have been made to fix these issues.

Making an accurate world map used to be very hard because people didn't know much about the Earth's lands and oceans. For a long time, people knew about less than half of the coastlines and just a little of the land inside continents. But starting from the European Renaissance, explorers learned more and more. By the mid-1700s, people had rough ideas of what most coastlines looked like, and by the 1900s, they knew a lot about the lands inside continents too.

World maps can focus on different things. Some maps show countries and cities, while others show natural features like mountains and soil types. There are also maps that go beneath the surface to show things like different types of rock, fault lines, and structures under the Earth. Some maps use colors to show differences between areas, like population or how much money people make.

About Map Projection

In map-making, a map projection is a way to show the round Earth on a flat surface. To do this, points on the Earth, like latitude and longitude, are changed into points on a flat map. Making a flat map like this is necessary, but it also changes how things really look on Earth.

Any time you turn a round object into a flat map, you have to change or distort some things. Depending on what the map is for, some changes are okay while others are not. There are many kinds of map projections, each with its own kind of changes. The goal is to understand what each projection does to the map's accuracy.

Although the word "projection" makes it sound like a shadow or an image made by a camera, it's really any math rule that turns the Earth's surface into a flat map. Most commonly used map projections don't actually work like a camera.

Usually, people think of the Earth as a perfect sphere when making maps. But in reality, Earth and other big objects in space are more like slightly flattened balls. Even objects with very uneven surfaces can be turned into flat maps.

The Mercator projection is one of the most famous map projections. It keeps angles accurate but makes places far from the equator look much bigger than they are. There are also map projections like the Sinusoidal and Gall–Peters that keep the sizes of places accurate but change the angles. Some maps, like the Robinson and Winkel tripel, try to find a balance between keeping sizes and angles somewhat accurate.

Early World Maps

The oldest world maps we know about were made a long time ago, around the 5th and 6th centuries BCE. These early maps thought the Earth was flat. Maps that showed the Earth as a sphere started appearing during a time called the Hellenistic period. Important Greek scholars like Eratosthenes and Posidonius made big contributions to map-making, and their work was later built upon by a Roman named Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE. Ptolemy's map was used for a very long time, even throughout the Middle Ages.

From the 15th to the 18th centuries, during the Age of Discovery, world maps got a lot better because of explorations. However, it wasn't until the 19th and early 20th centuries that people from the West started accurately mapping places like Antarctica, Australia, and the inside parts of Africa.

Sovereign Countries in the World

The following list provides a thorough insight into the sovereign states located in the world. The sovereign states listed are based on the status and identification of sovereignty and it is clearly marked on the map above.

The listed states, which are 206 in number, can be segregated into three groups on the basis of the membership within the United Nations system. There are 193 member states, two observer states, and eleven other states. The dispute column based on sovereignty depicts those states which come with unrivaled sovereignty. There are sixteen states, out of which six are member states. One falls into the category of nine other states. There are two states which carry a special status.

The world is a vast and diverse place, home to a wide array of countries, each with its own unique identity, culture, and government. Sovereign countries, recognized as independent states, make up the political landscape of our planet. These nations hold the power to govern themselves, craft their own policies, and interact with other countries on the global stage.

Understanding Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In the international community, sovereignty is the key that allows countries to enter into agreements, establish borders, and ensure the welfare of their citizens.

The Count: How Many Countries?

As of the latest count, there are 195 recognized sovereign countries in the world. This includes 193 member states of the United Nations and 2 countries, the Holy See and the State of Palestine, with observer status. Each of these countries has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.

Diversity in Governance

These countries vary greatly in size, population, and government structure. Democracies, monarchies, republics, and communist states all find a place in the global community, showcasing the variety of ways in which human societies organize themselves.

Economic and Cultural Richness

From the economic powerhouses of the United States, China, and the European Union to the cultural richness of India, Brazil, and Egypt, sovereign countries contribute to the world's economy and cultural heritage in significant ways. Small island nations and landlocked countries also play crucial roles, offering unique perspectives and resources.

Environmental and Global Challenges

Sovereign countries face a range of global challenges, from climate change and environmental degradation to political conflicts and economic instability. These challenges require international cooperation and solutions that respect the sovereignty and particular needs of each country.

A World of Opportunity

Despite the challenges, the diversity of the world's sovereign countries offers endless opportunities for exploration, learning, and collaboration. Each country has something unique to offer, whether it's natural beauty, historical landmarks, technological innovations, or culinary delights.

Navigating the Future Together

As the global community moves forward, the principles of sovereignty and mutual respect will continue to guide the relationships between countries. By working together, the world's sovereign nations can address common challenges, celebrate cultural differences, and build a more peaceful and prosperous future for all.

The world's 195 sovereign countries form the fabric of our global society. Each nation, with its own system of governance, culture, and challenges, contributes to the richness of the human experience. As we continue to navigate the complexities of the 21st century, understanding and respecting the sovereignty of these countries will be key to fostering international cooperation and harmony.

S.N.Recognised Countries in the WorldCapitalPopulationCurrencyDialing CodeArea (km2)Area (sq mi)
4AndorraAndorra la Vella85,458Euro+376468181
6Antigua and BarbudaSt. John's89,000East Caribbean dollar+1 268440170
7ArgentinaBuenos Aires43,131,966Peso+542,780,4001,073,518
9AustraliaCanberra23,923,600Australian Dollar+617,741,2202,988,902
12BahamasNassau379,000Bahamian dollar+1 24213,8785,358
13BahrainManama1,781,000Bahraini dinar+973765295.37
15BarbadosBridgetown283,000Barbadian dollar+1 246439166
16BelarusMinsk9,608,058Belarusian ruble+375207,60080,155
18BelizeBelmopan369,000Belize dollar+50122,9668,867
19BeninPorto-Novo8,439,000CFA franc+229112,62243,484
20BhutanThimphu760,000Bhutanese ngultrum+97538,39414,824
22Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo3,871,643Convertible mark+38751,19719,767
25BruneiBandar Seri Begawan421,000Brunei dollar+6735,7652,226
27Burkina FasoOuagadougou13,228,000CFA franc+226274,000105,792
28BurundiBujumbura7,548,000Burundian franc+25727,83010,745
29CambodiaPhnom Penh15,040,000Riel+855181,03569,898
30CameroonYaoundé17,795,000CFA franc+237475,442183,569
31CanadaOttawa35,819,000Canadian dollar+19,984,6703,854,085
32Cape VerdePraia420,979Cape Verdean escudo+2384,0331,557
33Central African RepublicBangui4,216,666CFA franc+236622,984240,535
34ChadN'Djamena10,146,000CFA franc+2351,284,000495,755
36China (PRC)Beijing1,370,793,000Renminbi (yuan)+869,596,9613,705,407
37ColombiaBogotá / Santa Fe de Bogotá48,347,000Peso+571,138,910439,736
38ComorosMoroni798,000Comorian franc+2692,235863
39Costa RicaSan José35,819,000Costa Rican colón+50651,10019,653
41CubaHavana11,252,000Cuban peso, Cuban convertible peso+53109,88442,426
43Czech RepublicPrague10,538,275Czech koruna+42078,86730,451
44Democratic Republic of the CongoKinshasa75,507,308Congolese franc+2432,344,858905,355
45DenmarkCopenhagen5,569,077Danish krone+4543,09416,639
46DjiboutiDjibouti City906,000Djiboutian franc+25323,2008,958
47DominicaRoseau71,000East Caribbean dollar+1 767750290
48Dominican RepublicSanto Domingo9,980,000Dominican Peso+1 809, +1 829, +1 84948,44218,704
49EcuadorQuito16,346,700United States dollar593283,561109,484
50EgyptCairo84,550,000Egyptian pound+201,001,449386,662
51El SalvadorSan Salvador6,460,000United States dollar+50321,0418,124
52Equatoria`l GuineaMalabo504,000CFA Franc+24028,05110,831
55EthiopiaAddis Ababa85,237,338Birr+2511,104,300426,373
56Federated States of MicronesiaPalikir135,869United States Dollar+691702271
57FijiSuva890,057Fijian Dollar+67918,2747,056
59FranceParis66,259,012Euro, CFP franc+33643,427248,429
60GabonLibreville1,384,000CFA franc+241267,668103,347
61GambiaBanjul1,517,000Gambian dalasi+22010,3804,008
62GeorgiaTbilisi / T'bilisi4,935,880Lari+99569,70026,911
64GhanaAccra23,000,000Ghana cedi+233238,53492,098
66GrenadaSt. George's104,000East Caribbean dollar+1 473348.5132.8
67GuatemalaGuatemala City16,176,000Guatemalan quetzal+502108,88942,042
68GuineaConakry10,057,975CFA Franc+240245,85794,926
69Guinea-BissauBissau1,586,000CFA franc+24536,12513,948
70GuyanaGeorgetown747,884Guyanese dollar+592214,96983,000
71HaitiPort-au-Prince10,994,000Haitian gourde+50927,75010,714
72HondurasTegucigalpa8,950,000Honduran lempira+504112,49243,278
74IcelandReykjavík317,351Icelandic króna+354103,00039,769
75IndiaNew Delhi1,299,499,000Indian rupee+913,287,5901,269,346
78IraqBaghdad36,575,000Iraqi dinar+964437,072169,234
80IsraelJerusalem (proclaimed)8,372,000New Shekel+97222,0728,522
82Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)Yamoussoukro17,654,843CFA franc+225322,460124,503
83JamaicaKingston2,729,000Jamaican dollar+1 87610,9914,244
85JordanAmman6,837,000Jordanian dinar+96289,34235,637
86KazakhstanAstana17,948,816Tenge+7-6xx, +7-7xx2,724,9001,052,090
87KenyaNairobi34,707,817Kenyan shilling+254580,367224,081
88KiribatiTarawa101,998Australian Dollar, Kiribati Dollar+686811313
89KuwaitKuwait City4,161,000Kuwaiti dinar+96517,8206,880
93LebanonBeirut4,288,000Lebanese pound+96110,4524,036
94LesothoMaseru2,067,000Lesotho loti+26630,35511,720
95LiberiaMonrovia4,128,572Liberian dollar+231111,36943,000
97LiechtensteinVaduz37,313Swiss franc+42316062
99LuxembourgLuxembourg City520,672Euro+3522,586998
100MacedoniaSkopje2,091,719Macedonian denar+38925,7139,928
101MadagascarAntananarivo18,606,000Malagasy ariary+261587,041226,658
103MalaysiaKuala Lumpur31,032,000Ringgit+60329,847127,355
104MaldivesMalé345,000Maldivian rufiyaa+960298115
105MaliBamako13,518,000CFA franc+2231,240,192478,841
107Marshall IslandsMajuro73,630United States Dollar+69218170
109MauritiusPort Louis1,219,220Mauritian rupee+2302,040788
110MexicoMexico City121,006,000Mexican Peso+521,972,550761,606
111MoldovaChișinău3,583,288Moldovan leu+37333,85113,070
115MoroccoRabat35,757,175Moroccan dirham+212446,550172,414
116MozambiqueMaputo20,366,795Mozambican metical+258801,590309,496
117Myanmar (Burma)Naypyidaw52,280,000Kyat+95676,578261,227
118NamibiaWindhoek2,031,000Namibian dollar+264825,418318,696
119NauruNo official Capital12,329Australian dollar+674218
120NepalKathmandu28,038,000Nepalese rupee+977147,18156,827
121NetherlandsAmsterdam(capital)16,877,351Euro, US dollar, NA guilder, Aruban florin+3141,54316,040
122New ZealandWellington4,570,038New Zealand Dollar+64267,710103,363
123NicaraguaManagua6,514,000Nicaraguan córdoba+505130,37550,193
124NigerNiamey13,957,000CFA franc+2271,267,000489,191
126North KoreaP'yŏngyang25,863,000North Korean won+850120,54046,528
127NorwayOslo5,147,792Norwegian krone+47323,802125,021
129PakistanIslamabad191,785,000Pakistani Rupee+92803,940310,403
130PalauNgerulmud21,032United States Dollar+680459177
131PalestineJerusalem (proclaimed), Ramallah4,225,710Israeli Shekel+9706,2202,402
132PanamaPanama City3,764,000Panamanian balboa, United States dollar+50774,177.3028,640
133Papua New GuineaPort Moresby6,310,129Papua New Guinean kina+675462,840178,704
135PeruLima31,151,643Nuevo sol+511,285,216496,225
136PhilippinesManila102,965,000Philippine Peso+63300,000115,831
137PolandWarsaw38,346,279Polish złoty+48312,685120,728
140Republic of the CongoBrazzaville4,012,809CFA franc+242342,000132,047
141RomaniaBucharest21,729,871Romanian leu+40238,39192,043
142RussiaMoscow146,267,288Russian ruble+717,098,2426,601,668
143RwandaKigali7,600,000Rwandan franc+25026,79810,347
144Saint Kitts and NevisBasseterre46,000East Caribbean dollar+1 869261104
145Saint LuciaCastries172,000East Caribbean dollar+1 758617238.23
146Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesKingstown110,000East Caribbean dollar+1 784389150
147SamoaApia194,320Samoan tālā+6852,8311,093
148San MarinoSan Marino32,742Euro+3786124
149São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé183,176Dobra+239964372
150Saudi ArabiaRiyadh31,521,000Saudi riyal+9662,149,690830,000
151SenegalDakar11,658,000CFA franc+221196,72375,955
152SerbiaBelgrade7,209,764Serbian dinar+38188,36134,116
153SeychellesVictoria80,654Seychellois rupee+248451174
154Sierra LeoneFreetown6,144,562Leone+23271,74027,699
155SingaporeSingapore City5,541,000Singapore dollar+65719.1278
158Solomon IslandsHoniara584,578Solomon Islands dollar+67728,89611,157
159SomaliaMogadishu9,832,017Somali shilling+252637,657246,201
160South AfricaBloemfontein(judicial) Cape Town(legislative) and Pretoria(executive)52,981,991South African rand+271,221,037471,445
161South KoreaSeoul50,617,000South Korean won+82100,21038,691
162South SudanJuba8,260,490South Sudanese pound+211644,329248,777
164Sri LankaSri Jayawardenapura Kotte20,869,000Sri Lankan rupee+9465,61025,332
165SudanKhartoum36,787,012Sudanese pound+2491,861,484718,723
166SurinameParamaribo541,638Surinamese dollar+597163,82063,251
167SwazilandLobamba (royal and legislative) Mbabane(administrative)1,032,000Lilangeni+26817,3646,704
168SwedenStockholm9,723,809Swedish krona+46450,295173,860
169SwitzerlandBern / Berne8,061,516Swiss franc+4141,27715,937
170SyriaDamascus23,270,000Syrian pound+963185,18071,479
172TanzaniaDodoma44,929,002Tanzanian shilling+255945,203364,945
174Timor-Leste (East Timor)Dili1,245,000US Dollar+67015,4105,743
175TogoLomé7,154,237CFA franc+22856,78521,925
176TongaNukuʻalofa106,146Tongan paʻanga+676747288
177Trinidad and TobagoPort of Spain1,357,000Trinidad and Tobago dollar+1 8685,1311,981
178TunisiaTunis10,102,000Tunisian dinar+216163,61063,170
179TurkeyAnkara78,214,000Turkish lira+90783,562302,535
180TurkmenistanAshgabat4,902,000Turkmen new manat+993491,210188,456
181TuvaluFunafuti11,146Australian dollar, Tuvaluan dollar+6882610
182UgandaKampala27,616,000Ugandan shilling+256236,04091,136
183UkraineKiev44,291,413Ukrainian hryvnia+380603,550233,032
184United Arab EmiratesAbu Dhabi8,933,000UAE dirham+97183,60032,278
185United KingdomLondon63,742,977Pound sterling+44243,61094,058
186United StatesWashington, D.C.321,234,000United States dollar+19,857,3063,805,927
187UruguayMontevideo3,404,189Uruguayan peso+598176,21568,037
188UzbekistanTashkent31,283,000Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi)+998448,978172,742
189VanuatuPort Vila256,155Vanuatu vatu+67812,1894,706
190Vatican CityVatican City842Euro+3790.440.17
191VenezuelaCaracas30,620,404Bolívar fuerte+58912,050352,144
193YemenSana'a26,745,000Yemeni rial+967528,076203,796
194ZambiaLusaka14,668,000Zambian kwacha+260752,614290,586
195ZimbabweHarare13,010,000US dollar+263390,757150,872

List of Countries with Limited Recognition

In our vast and diverse world, some countries operate under unique circumstances. These are the countries with limited recognition, entities that declare themselves as independent nations but have not received widespread recognition internationally. Understanding these regions helps in appreciating the complexities of global diplomacy and the varied aspirations of peoples around the world.

What Does Limited Recognition Mean?

Limited recognition refers to the status of territories that have declared independence but whose sovereignty is not widely acknowledged by the international community. This situation often arises from political disputes, historical conflicts, or ongoing tensions with neighboring countries. The level of recognition these countries receive can vary, with some being recognized by only a handful of other nations and others having observer status in international organizations.

Key Examples of Countries with Limited Recognition

Several territories around the world find themselves in this unique situation. Here are some notable examples:

Taiwan (Republic of China): Claimed by the People's Republic of China as part of its territory, Taiwan operates as a separate entity with its own government and economy. It has limited recognition but maintains informal international relationships and significant economic ties globally.

Kosovo: Declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is recognized by over 100 UN member states but not by others, including Serbia and some countries that veto its UN membership.

Western Sahara: Claimed and partially controlled by Morocco, Western Sahara's sovereignty is advocated by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, with limited recognition from some countries and status as a non-self-governing territory by the UN.

Northern Cyprus: Declared independence in 1983 but recognized only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus remains a point of contention in the Cyprus dispute.

Abkhazia and South Ossetia: Both regions declared independence from Georgia in the early 1990s, with recognition from a few countries following the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.

Transnistria: Declared independence from Moldova in 1990 but is recognized by only a few non-UN member states.

Challenges and Opportunities

Countries with limited recognition face numerous challenges, including reduced access to international aid, difficulty in establishing formal international relations, and economic sanctions. However, these countries often demonstrate significant resilience, developing robust internal governance and seeking creative solutions to participate in the global economy and diplomacy.

Global Perspective and Understanding

The situation of countries with limited recognition underscores the importance of diplomacy and dialogue in resolving international disputes. It also highlights the aspirations of peoples for self-determination and governance. The international community continues to work towards peaceful resolutions through negotiations, recognizing the complexities of national identities and territorial sovereignty.

Countries with limited recognition remind us of the ongoing journey toward global understanding and cooperation. Their existence invites a deeper exploration of the principles of international law, sovereignty, and the right to self-determination. As the world moves forward, the hope is for peaceful resolutions that respect the dignity and aspirations of all peoples.

S.N.Non-United Nations Member Sovereign CountriesCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1AbkhaziaSukhumi / SukhumAbkhazian apsar, Russian ruble+7 840, +7 940, +995 44250,0008,6603,344
2Cook IslandsAvaruaNew Zealand dollar, Cook Islands dollar+68220,81123691
4Nagorno-KarabakhStepanakertArmenian dram, Nagorno-Karabakh dram+374 47 / 97141,4007,0002,703
5NiueAlofiNew Zealand dollar+6832,134260100
6Northern CyprusNicosiaTurkish lira+90 392294,9063,3551,295
7Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicEl Aaiún(proclaimed)Algerian dinar, Sahrawi peseta+212266,000267,405103,246
8SomalilandHargeisaSomaliland shilling+2524,000,000137,60053,128
9South OssetiaTskhinvaliRussian ruble+995 3470,0003,9001,506
10TaiwanTaipeiNew Taiwan dollar+88623,071,77935,98013,892
11TransnistriaTiraspolTransnistrian ruble+373530,0003,5001,351

List of World's Non-Sovereign Dependent Territories

Across the globe, there are unique territories known as non-sovereign dependent territories. These regions are not independent countries but have a relationship with another country that manages foreign affairs, defense, and sometimes other functions. Understanding these territories offers insights into the diverse ways land and governance are organized around the world.

What Are Non-Sovereign Dependent Territories?

Non-sovereign dependent territories are areas that, despite having their own internal government, rely on a larger, sovereign state for international representation and often for defense. These dependencies can have varying degrees of autonomy, but they do not possess full political independence or sovereignty as states do.

Types of Dependencies

Dependencies can vary widely in terms of their governance, population, geography, and the nature of their relationship with the controlling country. They are generally classified into two types:

Overseas Territories

These are territories that, while not part of the controlling country's mainland, are under its sovereignty. They often have their own systems of government but follow the larger country's lead in matters like foreign policy and defense.

Crown Dependencies

Found mainly with the United Kingdom, these territories are not part of the UK but are self-governing possessions of the crown. They have their own legislative systems but rely on the UK for defense and international representation.

Examples of Non-Sovereign Dependent Territories

British Overseas Territories

These include places like Bermuda, the Falkland Islands, and Gibraltar. Each has its own internal government but depends on the UK for military protection and foreign diplomacy.

French Overseas Departments and Territories

Including areas like Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Polynesia, these territories vary in their degrees of autonomy but all share a close relationship with France.

U.S. Territories

Puerto Rico and Guam are examples of U.S. territories where the residents are U.S. citizens but have limited representation in the U.S. government.

Dutch Constituent Countries

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands but have their own governments and internal autonomy.

Unique Cultures and Natural Beauty

Non-sovereign dependent territories are often celebrated for their unique cultures, which blend elements from their indigenous populations with those of the controlling country. They are also known for their natural beauty, attracting tourists to their beaches, mountains, and wildlife.

Challenges and Benefits

While these territories benefit from the defense and sometimes economic support of their controlling countries, they also face challenges. Issues include debates over the right to self-determination, the impacts of climate change on small island territories, and economic dependence on the controlling country.

A World of Diversity

Non-sovereign dependent territories showcase the world's political and cultural diversity. From the remote islands of the Pacific to the rocky coasts of the Atlantic, these territories enrich our global community. They remind us of the complexities of governance and the importance of understanding the varied arrangements that countries have formed over centuries.

Non-sovereign dependent territories play a significant role in the global tapestry, highlighting the diversity of governance structures and cultural identities. Exploring these territories opens up new perspectives on the relationships between nations and their territories, contributing to a deeper understanding of our interconnected world.

S.N.Dependent TerritoriesCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Akrotiri and DhekeliaEpiskopi CantonmentEuro+3577,700 Cypriots, 8,000 British military personnel and their families25498
2American SamoaPago PagoUnited States dollar+1 68457,34519976.8
3AnguillaThe ValleyEast Caribbean dollar+1 26413,0379135
4Ashmore and Cartier IslandsUninhabitedLocal currency (ABC) Uninhabited52
5Bajo Nuevo BankN/AN/AN/A014556
6Baker IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited2.10.81
7BermudaHamiltonBermudian dollar+1 44164,23753.220.6
8British Indian Ocean Territory United States Dollar, Pound sterling+2463,00054,40021,004
9British Virgin IslandsRoad TownUnited States dollar+1 28428,05415359
10Cayman IslandsGeorge TownCayman Islands dollar+1 34558,238264102
11Christmas IslandFlying Fish CoveAustralian dollar+61 8 91642,07213552
12Clipperton IslandUninhabitedEuro Uninhabited62.3
13Cocos (Keeling) IslandsWest Island / BantamAustralian dollar+61596145
14Coral Sea IslandsUninhabited  431
15Easter IslandHanga RoaChilean Peso+565,761163.663.2
16Falkland IslandsStanleyFalkland Islands pound+5003,14012,1734,700
17Faroe Islands / Faeroe IslandsTórshavnFaroese króna, Danish krone+29849,9471,393538
18French PolynesiaPapeeteCFP Franc+689294,9354,1671,609
19French Southern and Antarctic LandsSaint-PierreEuro+33, +262140 estimate38.615
20GibraltarGibraltarGibraltar pound+35029,1856.52.5
21GuamHagåtña / AgañaUnited States Dollar+1-671161,785541.3209
22GuernseySaint Peter PortPound sterling+4465,8497830
23HawaiiHonoluluUnited States dollar+1 808, +1 650, +1 2091,419,56128,31110,931
24Hong KongHong KongHong Kong dollar+8527,298,6001,104426
25Howland IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited1.621.05
26Isle of ManDouglasPound sterling+4486,866572221
27Jarvis IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited4.51.75
28JerseySaint HelierPound sterling+4496,51311846
29Johnston AtollUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited2.671.03
30Juan Fernández IslandsSan Juan BautistaChilean Peso+5690099.638.5
31Kingman ReefUninhabitedUnited States dollar Uninhabited7629
32Macau / MacaoMacau / MacaoMacanese pataca+853642,90028.210.9
33Midway IslandsUninhabitedUnited States dollar+1 808606.22.4
34MontserratPlymouthEast Caribbean dollar+1 6644,92210239
35Navassa IslandN/AUnited States dollarN/AUninhabited5.42
36New CaledoniaNouméaCFP Franc+687268,76718,5767,172
37Norfolk IslandKingstonAustralian Dollar+672 32,21034.613.3
38Northern Mariana IslandsSaipanUnited States Dollar+1 67053,855475.3183.5
39Ogasawara VillageŌmura (大村)Yen+81 32,871104.4140.31
40Palmyra AtollUninhabitedUnited States dollar+14 - 20124.6
41PapuaJayapuraIndonesian Rupiah+62 93,486,432319,036.05123,180.51
42Pitcairn IslandsAdamstownNew Zealand dollar+64564718.1
43Puerto RicoSan JuanUnited States dollar+1 787 / 9393,548,3979,1043,515
44Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaJamestownSaint Helena pound, Pound sterling+2905,661420162
45Serranilla BankN/AN/AN/AN/A1,200463.32
46South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsKing Edward PointPound sterling+500no indigenous inhabitants3,9031,507
47TokelauEach Atoll has its own administrative centreNew Zealand dollar+6901,431103.86
48Turks and Caicos IslandsCockburn TownUnited States dollar+1 64931,618616.3238
49United States Virgin IslandsCharlotte AmalieUnited States dollar+1 340106,405346.36133.73
50Wake IslandUninhabitedUnited States dollar+1 8081507.12.73
51Wallis and FutunaMata-UtuCFP Franc+68115,585142.4255
52West PapuaManokwariPapuan, Dutch Guilder, Indonesian Rupiah+62 9877,437140,375.6254,199.33

List of Other Areas in the World

S.N.Other AreasCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
2ArubaOranjestadAruban florin+297110,000178.9169.08
3BonaireKralendijkUnited States dollar+599 7 294114
4Canary IslandsSanta Cruz and Las PalmasEuro+342,205,2477,4472,875
5CeutaCeutaEuro+34 95276,8612811
6CuraçaoWillemstadNetherlands Antillean guilder+599 9157,000444171.4
7French GuianaCayenneEuro+594250,10983,53432,253
8GreenlandNuukDanish krone+29956,0002,166,086836,109
10MadeiraFunchalEuro(+351) 291 XXX XXX267,785828320
13MelillaMelillaEuro+34 95272,000208
14Northern IrelandBelfastPound Sterling+441,810,86314,1305,456
15Pelagie IslandsLampedusa e LinosaEuro+396,30421.48
16Plazas de soberaníaN/AEuro+3474  
18SabaThe BottomUnited States dollar+599 4 135
19Saint BarthélemyGustaviaEuro+59010,000259.5
20Saint MartinMarigotEuro+59036,0008734
21Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint-PierreEuro+5086,00024293
22San Andrés and ProvidenciaSan AndrésColombian peso+57 52.520.3
23Sint EustatiusOranjestadUnited States dollar+599 3 218
24Sint MaartenPhilipsburgNetherlands Antillean guilder+1 72139,0003413.1
25SvalbardLongyearbyenNorwegian krone+472,01962,04523,956

List of Territorial Claims in Antarctica

Antarctica, the southernmost continent, is a land of extreme conditions, unparalleled beauty, and scientific intrigue. Unlike any other place on Earth, it is governed by a unique set of international agreements that prioritize scientific exploration and environmental protection over territorial sovereignty and economic exploitation. Despite this, several countries have made territorial claims on the continent, which adds an interesting layer to its governance and use.

The Antarctic Treaty System

The governance of Antarctica is primarily based on the Antarctic Treaty System, an international agreement that entered into force in 1961. The treaty sets aside the continent as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent. One of the key principles of the treaty is that it puts aside the territorial claims of countries for as long as the treaty is in effect. However, it does not resolve these claims.

Countries with Territorial Claims

As of now, seven countries have made official territorial claims in Antarctica. These claims are often based on historical expeditions, geographical proximity, or other national interests. The countries with claims are:

The claims overlap in some areas, particularly between Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom, leading to complex diplomatic negotiations. It's important to note that these claims are recognized only by the countries making them and sometimes their allies, but not by the international community as a whole.

Areas Without Claims

A significant portion of Antarctica does not have any territorial claims. This includes the area from 90 degrees west to 150 degrees west, designated as a "sector" without claim. This area is of particular interest to the scientific community due to its relative neutrality and the focus on collaborative international research.

Activities in Antarctica

Despite the territorial claims, the Antarctic Treaty ensures that the continent is used primarily for peaceful purposes and scientific research. Research stations from various countries dot the landscape, conducting important studies on climate change, wildlife, and glaciology, among other topics. Tourism is also regulated to ensure environmental protection, with visitors able to experience the continent's beauty without leaving a lasting impact.

Environmental Protection

The Antarctic Treaty System includes agreements specifically focused on environmental protection, such as the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, which designates Antarctica as a "natural reserve, devoted to peace and science." This protocol sets strict guidelines for human activity to minimize environmental impact, including waste disposal regulations and restrictions on mineral resource exploitation.

The Future of Territorial Claims

The future of territorial claims in Antarctica is uncertain, but the Antarctic Treaty System provides a framework for peaceful cooperation. As the effects of climate change become more pronounced, the importance of preserving Antarctica for scientific research and environmental monitoring becomes even more critical. The continent's status as a place beyond national interests underscores the potential for international cooperation in addressing global challenges.

Antarctica stands as a testament to the possibilities of peaceful international collaboration. While territorial claims exist, they are held in abeyance by the Antarctic Treaty, which prioritizes scientific exploration and environmental preservation. As we move forward, Antarctica will continue to be a focal point for research, a beacon of international cooperation, and a reminder of our shared responsibility to protect our planet's last great wilderness.

S.N.Territory in AntarcticaClaimantDateCapitalCurrencyDialing CodePopulationClaim limitsArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Adélie LandFrance1924Dumont d'Urville StationaEuro+262 262 00 233 (winter), 80 (summer)142°2'E to 136°11'E432,000166,796
2Argentine AntarcticaArgentina1942Handled by the province of Tierra del Fuego, whose capital is Ushuaia. 0054 + 02901 Esperanza and Marambio Stations: 0054 + 02964469 (2010 Census)25°W to 74°W1,461,597564,326
3Australian Antarctic TerritoryAustralia1933Davis StationAustralian Dollar+672 1xless than 1,000160°E to 142°2'E, 136°11'E to 44°38'E5,896,5002,276,651
4British Antarctic TerritoryUnited Kingdom1908Halley BasePound sterling 250 (summer)20°W to 80°W1,709,400660,000
5Chilean Antarctic TerritoryChile1940Villa Las EstrellasChilean Peso56 + 61115 (2012 Census)53°W to 90°W1,250,257482,727
6Peter I IslandNorway1929 Norwegian krone uninhabited68°50'S 90°35'W15459
7Queen Maud LandNorway1939OsloNorwegian krone maximum average of 40, Six are occupied year-round44°38'E to 20°W2,700,0001,042,476
8Ross DependencyNew Zealand1923Scott BaseNew Zealand Dollar+64 240910-80 (Scott Base) 200-1,000 (McMurdo Station) 85-200 (South Pole Station) 0-90 (Zucchelli Station)150°W to 160°E450,000174,000

List of Overlapping Claims in Antarctica

Antarctica, the icy expanse at the southern end of our planet, is a continent of mystery and extreme environmental conditions. It's also a land without a native human population, governed by an international treaty that emphasizes scientific cooperation and environmental protection. However, beneath its ice and communal international research efforts, a complex web of territorial claims exists, some of which overlap, creating intriguing diplomatic puzzles.

The Antarctic Treaty System: A Framework for Peace

The Antarctic Treaty System, established in 1961, is the cornerstone of governance in Antarctica. It ensures the continent is used exclusively for peaceful purposes, primarily scientific research. Importantly, while not dismissing them, the treaty puts aside the territorial claims made by countries, allowing for a unique international cooperation model. However, these claims still exist and are sometimes in conflict with one another.

Countries with Overlapping Claims

The phenomenon of overlapping claims in Antarctica primarily involves three countries: Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom. These overlapping claims are concentrated in the Antarctic Peninsula region, the most northerly part of the continent, making it more accessible and environmentally hospitable for research stations.

Argentina and Chile base their claims on geographical proximity and historical connections to the region. The United Kingdom's claim, which dates back to the early 20th century, overlaps with those of Argentina and Chile, leading to a complex situation that requires careful diplomatic navigation.

Understanding the Overlaps

Despite these overlaps, all three countries are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, which means they agree to set aside their disputes in the spirit of scientific exploration and environmental preservation.

The Role of the Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty plays a crucial role in managing the complexities of these overlapping claims. By fostering an environment where scientific research can proceed without hindrance from territorial disputes, the treaty helps ensure that Antarctica remains a global commons focused on peace and knowledge.

Activities in Overlapping Claim Areas

In areas of overlapping claims, research stations from Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom operate under the principles of the Antarctic Treaty. These bases are involved in a wide range of scientific research activities, from studying climate change and glaciology to understanding marine ecosystems and astronomy.

The Future of Overlapping Claims

The future of these overlapping claims in Antarctica likely remains stable, thanks to the Antarctic Treaty System. As environmental and scientific priorities take precedence over national territorial ambitions, the continent serves as a model for international cooperation. The treaty's success in maintaining peace and collaboration in Antarctica is seen as a testament to the potential for resolving even the most complex international disputes.

Antarctica's overlapping territorial claims represent a fascinating aspect of international relations, set against the backdrop of one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Through the Antarctic Treaty System, these claims have been managed in a way that promotes peace, scientific research, and environmental protection. As the continent continues to be a focal point for global scientific efforts, the spirit of cooperation in Antarctica provides a hopeful model for addressing other international challenges.

S.N.ClaimantsClaim Limits
1Argentina, United Kingdom25°W to 53°W
2Argentina, Chile, United Kingdom53°W to 74°W
3Chile, United Kingdom74°W to 80°W

List of Unclaimed Territory in Antarctica

S.N.RegionUnclaimed limitsCurrencyPopulationArea (km2)Area (sq mi))
1Marie Byrd Land90°W to 150°WPenguino20 to 30 People1,610,000620,000

List of Oceans of the World

The Earth is often called the Blue Planet, a nod to the vast oceans that cover approximately 71% of its surface. These massive bodies of water play a crucial role in shaping our climate, geography, and biodiversity. They are sources of life, livelihoods, and endless mystery. Here, we dive into the wonders of the world's oceans, offering a glimpse into their depths, the life within, and their significance to our planet.

The Five Oceans: A Global Overview

Our planet is home to five main oceans, each with its unique characteristics, ecosystems, and roles in the Earth's climate system. From the icy waters of the Arctic to the warm currents of the Indian Ocean, these expanses of water connect continents, regulate weather patterns, and support a diverse array of life forms.

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the world's oceans. It stretches from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bordered by Asia and Australia on the west and the Americas on the east. This ocean is home to the Mariana Trench, the deepest point on Earth. The Pacific plays a vital role in global weather patterns, including phenomena like El Niño and La Niña.

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean, the second-largest, spans from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Antarctic in the south, separating the Americas from Europe and Africa. It is known for the Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current that influences the climate of the east coast of North America and western Europe. The Atlantic is rich in history, having been a major route for exploration and trade.

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest ocean, bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west, Australia to the east, and merging with the Southern Ocean to the south. It is the warmest ocean and plays a critical role in monsoon patterns affecting the Indian subcontinent. The Indian Ocean is also a vital route for global maritime trade.

Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, encircles Antarctica and is defined by a blend of cold, nutrient-rich waters that support a rich biodiversity, including many species of whales, seals, and penguins. The Southern Ocean's Antarctic Circumpolar Current helps distribute heat and nutrients around the globe, playing a key role in Earth's climate system.

Arctic Ocean

The smallest and shallowest of the world's oceans, the Arctic Ocean is located within the Arctic Circle and is mostly covered by sea ice throughout the year. It is surrounded by the landmasses of North America, Europe, and Asia. The Arctic Ocean is crucial for its impact on global temperatures and its ecosystem, which is adapted to extreme conditions.

Importance of the Oceans

The oceans are the heart of our planet, regulating climate, absorbing carbon dioxide, and supporting a diverse marine life that is vital for the ecological balance. They provide food, energy resources, and are crucial for trade and transportation. The health of our oceans directly impacts the health of the entire planet, including humans.

Challenges Facing Our Oceans

Today, our oceans face numerous threats, including pollution, overfishing, climate change, and habitat destruction. These challenges require global cooperation and sustainable management to ensure the oceans continue to support life on Earth for generations to come.

The oceans of the world are vast repositories of biodiversity, resources, and beauty. They connect us, sustain us, and have the power to inspire wonder and respect. As we continue to explore and understand the depths of the oceans, we must also commit to protecting these precious global treasures for the future.

S.N.OceanLocationArea (km2)Area (% of Total)Volume (km3)Volume (% of Total)Avg. depth (m)Coastline (km)Coastline (% of Total)
1Pacific OceanLies between Asia and the Americas and Australasia168,723,00046.60%669,880,00050.10%3,970135,66335.90%
2Atlantic OceanLies between the Americas and Africa and Europe85,133,00023.50%310,410,90023.30%3,646111,86629.60%
3Indian OceanLies between southern Asia, Australia, and Africa70,560,00019.50%264,000,00019.80%3,74166,52617.60%
4Antarctic / Southern OceanLies between Antarctica, Atlantic, Pacific ocean, and Indian oceans. Sometimes treated an extension of those 3 oceans.21,960,0006.10%71,800,0005.40%3,27017,9684.80%
5Arctic OceanLies between Eurasia in the Arctic and northern North America and treated a marginal sea of the Atlantic.15,558,0004.30%18,750,0001.40%1,20545,38912.00%

List of World's Longest Rivers

Rivers are the lifeblood of our planet, carving through landscapes, nurturing ecosystems, and shaping human civilizations. They are natural wonders that offer vital water resources, transportation routes, and habitats for diverse wildlife. Among these waterways, some stand out for their extraordinary lengths, winding across continents and passing through varied terrains. Let's embark on a journey to explore the world's longest rivers, marveling at their size, the regions they traverse, and the roles they play in sustaining life.

The Nile River

Flowing northward through northeastern Africa, the Nile is often celebrated as the longest river in the world, with an estimated length of about 6,650 kilometers (4,130 miles). It traverses through eleven countries, including Egypt, Sudan, and Uganda, before emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile has been a cradle of civilization for thousands of years, providing essential water for agriculture and daily life in the arid landscapes it traverses.

The Amazon River

The Amazon, winding through South America, is the largest river by water flow and is often in close competition with the Nile for the title of the world's longest river. Its length is approximately 6,400 kilometers (about 4,000 miles), but it boasts the largest drainage basin in the world, covering approximately 7,000,000 square kilometers (2,700,000 square miles). The Amazon River runs through Brazil, Peru, and several other countries, supporting the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth.

The Yangtze River

Asia's longest river, the Yangtze, stretches over 6,300 kilometers (3,917 miles) from the glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau to the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is the third-longest river globally and plays a crucial role in the history, culture, and economy of China. The Yangtze River basin is home to one-third of China's population, providing water, hydroelectric power, and a vital transportation corridor.

The Mississippi-Missouri River System

In North America, the Mississippi-Missouri River system is the fourth-longest river system in the world. The Missouri River, the longest tributary, flows into the Mississippi River, which then travels approximately 6,275 kilometers (3,902 miles) to the Gulf of Mexico. This river system drains 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces, serving as a key axis for agricultural production, commerce, and culture.

The Yenisei River

Flowing northward from Mongolia into Russia and emptying into the Arctic Ocean, the Yenisei is the largest river system flowing into the Arctic. With a length of around 5,539 kilometers (3,445 miles), it is the fifth-longest river in the world and an essential feature of the Siberian landscape, supporting diverse ecosystems and indigenous communities along its banks.

Significance and Challenges

These mighty rivers are more than just stretches of water; they are dynamic systems that support biodiversity, human livelihoods, and economies. They play critical roles in hydrological cycles, transport sediments, replenish ecosystems, and connect inland areas to the oceans.

However, these rivers face numerous threats, including pollution, dam construction, overfishing, and climate change, which impact their health and the services they provide to humans and wildlife. Preserving these majestic rivers requires global cooperation and sustainable management practices to ensure they continue to flow for generations to come.

The world's longest rivers are marvels of nature's architecture, winding through continents and telling stories of human history, culture, and survival. As we learn more about these waterways and their critical roles in our environment, we are reminded of the importance of protecting these natural resources. By appreciating and conserving our rivers, we ensure a healthier planet and a sustainable future for all life forms that depend on these flowing waters.

RankRiverOutflowLength in kmDrainage Area in km2Length in MilesAverage Discharge in m3/s
2AmazonAtlantic Ocean6,4007,000,0003,976209,000
3YangtzeEast China Sea6,3001,800,0003,91730,166
4MississippiGulf of Mexico6,2752,980,0003,90216,792
5YeniseiKara Sea5,5392,580,0003,44518,050
6Yellow RiverBohai Sea5,464745,0003,3952,571
7Ob-IrtyshGulf of Ob5,4102,990,0003,36412,475
8ParanáRío de la Plata4,8802,582,6723,03022,000
9CongoAtlantic Ocean4,7003,680,0002,92241,800
10AmurSea of Okhotsk4,4441,855,0002,76311,400
11LenaLaptev Sea4,4002,490,0002,73615,500
12MekongSouth China Sea4,350810,0002,70516,000
13MackenzieBeaufort Sea4,2411,790,0002,63710,300
14NigerGulf of Guinea4,2002,090,0002,6115,589
16MurraySouthern Ocean3,6721,061,0002,282767
17TocantinsAtlantic Ocean (Marajó Bay), Amazon Delta3,650950,0002,27013,598
18VolgaCaspian Sea3,6451,380,0002,2668,080
19IndusArabian Sea3,610960,0002,2507,160
20Shatt al-ArabPersian Gulf3,596884,0002,236856
23YukonBering Sea3,185850,0001,9806,210
24São FranciscoAtlantic Ocean3,180610,0001,9763,300
25Syr DaryaAral Sea3,078219,0001,913703
26SalweenAndaman Sea3,060324,0001,9013,153
27Saint LawrenceGulf of Saint Lawrence3,0581,030,0001,90010,100
28Rio GrandeGulf of Mexico3,057570,0001,90082
29Lower TunguskaYenisei2,989473,0001,8573,600
30Danube-BregBlack Sea2,888817,0001,7957,130
31Irrawaddy RiverAndaman Sea2,809404,2001,745.8013,000
32ZambeziMozambique Channel2,7401,330,0001,7034,880
34GangesBay of Bengal2,7041,024,0001,69012,037
35AmuAral Sea2,620534,7391,6281,400
37NelsonHudson Bay2,5701,093,0001,5972,575
39KolymaEast Siberian Sea2,513644,0001,5623,800
41Upper Ob-KatunOb2,490 1,547 
43UralCaspian Sea2,428237,0001,509475
46ColoradoGulf of California2,333390,0001,4501,200
47OlenyokLaptev Sea2,292219,0001,4241,210
48DnieperBlack Sea2,287516,3001,4211,670
52ColumbiaPacific Ocean2,250415,2111,3987,500
53PearlSouth China Sea2,200437,0001,37613,600
57OrinocoAtlantic Ocean2,1011,380,0001,30633,000
58TarimLop Nur2,100557,0001,305 
59XinguAmazon2,100 1,305 
60OrangeAtlantic Ocean2,092 1,300 
61Brazos-DoubleGulf of Mexico2,060 1,280 
62Northern SaladoParaná2,010 1,249 
63VitimLena1,978 1,229 
64TigrisShatt al-Arab1,950 1,212 
65SonghuaAmur1,927 1,197 
66TapajósAmazon1,900 1,181 
67DonSea of Azov1,870425,6001,162935
68Stony TunguskaYenisey1,865240,0001,159 
69PechoraBarents Sea1,809322,0001,1244,100
71LimpopoIndian Ocean1,800413,0001,118 
73GuaporéMamoré1,749 1,087 
74IndigirkaEast Siberian Sea1,726360,4001,0721,810
76SenegalAtlantic Ocean1,641419,6591,020 
77UruguayAtlantic Ocean1,610370,0001,000 
78Blue NileNile1,600326,400994 
78ChurchillHudson Bay1,600 994 
78Khatanga-KotuyLaptev Sea1,600 994 
78OkavangoOkavango Delta1,600 994 
78VoltaGulf of Guinea1,600 994 
84PlatteMissouri1,594 990 
85TobolIrtysh1,591 989 
86AlazeyaEast Siberian Sea1,59064,700988 
87Jubba-ShebelleIndian Ocean1,580 982 
88IçáAmazon1,575 979 
90HanYangtze1,532 952 
91Kura/Mt'k'variCaspian Sea1,515188,400941575
93Upper MurrayLower Murray1,500 932 
94GuaviareOrinoco1,497 930 
95PecosRio Grande1,490 926 
96Murrumbidgee RiverMurray River1,48584,917923120
97Upper YeniseyYenisey1,480 920 
98GodavariBay of Bengal1,465312,8129103,061
99ColoradoGulf of Mexico1,438 894 
100Upper TocantinsTocantins1,427 887 
101Cooper-BarcooLake Eyre1,420 880 
103MarañónAmazon1,415 879 
104DniesterBlack Sea1,41172,100877310
105BenueNiger1,400 870 
105Ili (Yili)Lake Balkhash1,400 870 
105Warburton-GeorginaLake Eyre1,400365,000870 
108SutlejChenab1,372 852 
111FraserPacific Ocean1,368220,0008503,475
112GrandeParaná1,360 845 
113Liao-Xiliao-LaohaBohai Sea1,345 836 
114Lachlan RiverMurrumbidgee River1,33984,70083249
115NarmadaArabian Sea1,33398,7968151,447
116YalongYangtze1,323 822 
117IguaçuParaná1,320 820 
117OlyokmaLena1,320 820 
119Northern Dvina-SukhonaWhite Sea1,302357,0528093,332
120KrishnaBay of Bengal1,300 808 
120IririXingu1,300 808 
122LomamiCongo1,280 795 
123OttawaSaint Lawrence1,271146,3007901,950
124Rio Grande de Santiago-LermaPacific Ocean1,270119,543789 
125Elbe-VltavaNorth Sea1,252148,268778711
126ZeyaAmur1,242 772 
127JuruenaTapajós1,240 771 
128Upper MississippiMississippi1,236 768 
129RhineNorth Sea1,233185,0007682,330
131CanadianArkansas1,223 760 
132North SaskatchewanSaskatchewan1,220 758 
133Vistula-Narew-BugBaltic Sea1,213194,4247541,080
134VaalOrange1,210 752 
135ShireZambezi1,200 746 
135Ogooué (or Ogowe)Atlantic Ocean1,200223,8567464,706
137NenSonghua1,190 739 
138Kızıl RiverBlack Sea1,182115,000734400
140GreenColorado (western U.S.)1,175 730 
141MilkMissouri1,173 729 
142Mun - ChiMekong River1,162 722 
142WhiteMississippi1,162 722 
144ChindwinAyeyarwady1,158 720 
145SankuruKasai1,150 715 
147Red (Asia)Gulf of Tonkin1,149143,7007142,640
148James (Dakotas)Missouri1,143 710 
148KapuasNatuna Sea1,143 710 
150HelmandHamun-i-Helmand1,130 702 
150Madre de DiosBeni1,130125,0007024,915
150TietêParaná1,130 702 
150VychegdaNorthern Dvina1,130121,0007021160
155SepikPacific Ocean1,12677,700700 
156CimarronArkansas1,123 698 
157AnadyrGulf of Anadyr1,120 696 
157Paraíba do SulAtlantic Ocean1,120 696 
159Jialing RiverYangtze1,119 695 
160LiardMackenzie1,115 693 
162HuallagaMarañón1,100 684 
162DraaAtlantic Ocean1,100 684 
165GambiaAtlantic Ocean1,094 680 
167ChenabIndus1,086 675 
170Huai RiverYangtze1,078270,0006701,110
173Seversky DonetsDon1,05398,900654159
174BermejoParaguay1,050 652 
174FlyGulf of Papua1,050 652 
174KuskokwimBering Sea1,050 652 
177TennesseeOhio1,049 652 
178Oder-WartaBaltic Sea1,045118,861649550
179AruwimiCongo1,030 640 
180ChambalYamuna1,024 636 
181DaugavaGulf of Riga1,02087,900634678
182GilaColorado (western U.S.)1,015 631 
183LoireAtlantic Ocean1,012115,271629840
184EssequiboAtlantic Ocean1,010 628 
186Tagus (Tajo/Tejo)Atlantic Ocean1,00680,100625444
187Flinders RiverGulf of Carpentaria1,004109,000624122

List of Highest Mountains Peaks in the World

Mountains have always captivated the human imagination. These natural giants stand as silent sentinels, guarding the secrets of the ages. They challenge adventurers, inspire artists, and offer refuge to an astonishing diversity of life. Among the countless mountains that pierce our skies, a few stand unparalleled in their height, majesty, and the sheer awe they invoke. Let's ascend the summits of the world's highest peaks, exploring the wonders they hold and the challenges they present to those who dare to climb.

Mount Everest

Mount Everest, the crown jewel of the Himalayas, reigns supreme as the highest peak on Earth. Towering at an impressive 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) above sea level, it straddles the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Everest is more than just a mountain; it's a symbol of human endurance and adventure, attracting climbers from around the globe who seek to conquer its formidable heights.


K2, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, is the world's second-highest mountain, standing at 8,611 meters (28,251 feet) above sea level. Located on the China-Pakistan border, K2 is renowned for its technical difficulty and harsh weather conditions, earning it the nickname "The Savage Mountain." Its challenging terrain and high risk make it a prestigious climb for the world's most experienced mountaineers.


The third-highest peak in the world, Kangchenjunga, towers at 8,586 meters (28,169 feet). It marks the eastern boundary of Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim. The name Kangchenjunga means "The Five Treasures of Snows," reflecting the mountain's five high peaks. Revered by local communities, climbers traditionally stop just short of the summit out of respect for the mountain's sacred status.


Lhotse, meaning "South Peak" in Tibetan, is the fourth-highest mountain in the world, with a height of 8,516 meters (27,940 feet). It is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col, a sharp-edged pass that serves as the final ascent for Everest climbers. Lhotse is distinguished by its dramatic south face, a formidable wall of rock that presents a challenging climb.


The fifth-highest mountain, Makalu, stands tall at 8,485 meters (27,838 feet). Its pyramid shape and isolated location in the Mahalangur range of the Himalayas, on the border between Nepal and Tibet, make it a striking feature of the landscape. Despite its remote location, Makalu attracts climbers who are drawn to its pristine beauty and the challenge of its steep pitches.

Cho Oyu

Cho Oyu, which translates to "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan, is the world's sixth-highest peak, reaching 8,188 meters (26,864 feet) into the sky. It lies on the Nepal-Tibet border and is considered one of the more accessible eight-thousanders, making it a popular choice for climbers looking to experience high-altitude mountaineering.

The Challenge and Allure of High Peaks

Climbing these towering peaks is not for the faint-hearted. It requires immense physical preparation, mental resilience, and respect for the mountain environment. Climbers face hazards such as avalanches, extreme weather, and altitude sickness. Yet, the allure of standing atop one of the world's highest peaks, gazing out over the Earth far below, continues to draw adventurers from across the globe.

Preserving Natural Wonders

As we celebrate the majesty of these high mountains, we must also commit to their preservation. The fragile ecosystems that flourish on their slopes, and the cultures that have grown around them, are treasures as precious as the peaks themselves. Responsible climbing practices and sustainable tourism can help ensure that future generations will continue to be inspired by these magnificent mountains.

The world's highest mountain peaks stand as monuments to nature's grandeur and testaments to human spirit and perseverance. Each mountain, with its unique geography and stories, contributes to our planet's rich tapestry. Exploring these giants gives us a deeper appreciation for the natural world and our place within it, reminding us of the enduring allure of the mountains and the endless adventure they offer.

RankMountain NameHeight (rounded) in MetersHeight (rounded) in FeetsProminence (rounded) in MetersProminence (rounded) in FeetsRangeParent MountainCountry
1Mount Everest, Sagarmatha, Chomolungma8,84829,0298,84829,029Mahalangur Himalaya-Nepal, China
2K28,61128,2514,02013,190Baltoro KarakoramMount EverestPakistan, China
3Kangchenjunga8,58628,1693,92212,867Kangchenjunga HimalayaMount EverestNepal, India
4Lhotse8,51627,9406102,000Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina, Nepal
5Makalu8,48527,8382,3787,802Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestNepal, China
6Cho Oyu8,18826,8642,3407,680Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina, Nepal
7Dhaulagiri I8,16726,7953,35711,014Dhaulagiri HimalayaK2Nepal
8Manaslu8,16326,7813,09210,144Manaslu HimalayaCho OyuNepal
9Nanga Parbat8,12626,6604,60815,118Nanga Parbat HimalayaDhaulagiriPakistan
10Annapurna I8,09126,5452,9849,790Annapurna HimalayaCho OyuNepal
11Gasherbrum I, Hidden Peak, K58,08026,5102,1557,070Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan, China
12Broad Peak8,05126,4141,7015,581Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IChina, Pakistan
13Gasherbrum II, K48,03526,3621,5245,000Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan, China
14Shishapangma, Gosainthan8,02726,3352,8979,505Jugal HimalayaCho OyuChina
15Gyachung Kang7,95226,0896722,205Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuNepal, China
16Gasherbrum III, K3a7,94626,0703551,165Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIPakistan, China
17Annapurna II7,93726,0402,4377,995Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna INepal
18Gasherbrum IV, K37,93226,0247122,336Baltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIIPakistan
19Himalchuli7,89325,8961,6335,358Manaslu HimalayaManasluNepal
20Distaghil Sar7,88425,8662,5258,284Hispar KarakoramK2Pakistan
21Ngadi Chuli7,87125,8231,0113,317Manaslu HimalayaManasluNepal
22Nuptse7,86425,8013051,001Mahalangur HimalayaLhotseNepal
23Khunyang Chhish7,82325,6661,7655,791Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
24Masherbrum, K17,82125,6592,4578,061Masherbrum KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan
25Nanda Devi7,81625,6433,13910,299Garhwal HimalayaDhaulagiriIndia
26Chomo Lonzo7,80425,6045901,940Mahalangur HimalayaMakaluChina
27Batura Sar7,79525,5743,11810,230Batura KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
28Rakaposhi7,78825,5512,8189,245Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
29Namcha Barwa7,78225,5314,10613,471Assam HimalayaKangchenjungaChina
30Kanjut Sar7,76025,4601,6605,450Hispar KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
31Kamet7,75625,4462,8259,268Garhwal HimalayaNanda DeviIndia
32Dhaulagiri II7,75125,4302,3977,864Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiriNepal
33Saltoro Kangri, K107,74225,4002,1607,090Saltoro KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia, Pakistan
34Kumbhakarna, Jannu7,71125,2991,0363,399Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaNepal
35Tirich Mir7,70825,2893,91012,830Hindu KushBatura SarPakistan
36Molamenqing7,70325,2724331,421Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaChina
37Gurla Mandhata7,69425,2432,7889,147Nalakankar HimalayaDhaulagiriChina
38Saser Kangri I, K227,67225,1712,3047,559Saser KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia
39Chogolisa7,66525,1481,6245,328Masherbrum KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan
40Dhaulagiri IV7,66125,1354691,539Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IINepal
41Kongur Tagh7,64925,0953,58511,762Kongur Shan (Eastern Pamirs)Distaghil SarChina
42Dhaulagiri V7,61824,9933401,120Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
43Shispare7,61124,9701,2404,070Batura KarakoramBatura SarPakistan
44Trivor7,57724,8599973,271Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
45Gangkhar Puensum7,57024,8402,9959,826Kula Kangri HimalayaKangchenjungaBhutan, China
46Gongga Shan, Minya Konka7,55624,7903,64211,949Daxue Mountains (Hengduan Shan)Mount EverestChina
47Annapurna III7,55524,7877032,306Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna INepal
48Skyang Kangri7,54524,7541,0853,560Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan, China
49Changtse7,54324,7475141,686Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina
50Kula Kangri7,53824,7311,6545,427Kula Kangri HimalayaGangkhar PuensumChina, Bhutan
51Kongur Tiube7,53024,7008402,760Kongur Shan (Eastern Pamirs)Kongur TaghChina
52Annapurna IV7,52524,688255837Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurnaNepal
53Mamostong Kangri7,51624,6591,8035,915Rimo KarakoramGasherbrum IIndia
54Saser Kangri II E7,51324,6491,4584,783Saser KarakoramSaser Kangri IIndia
55Muztagh Ata7,50924,6362,6988,852Muztagata (Eastern Pamirs)Kongur TaghChina
56Ismoil Somoni Peak7,49524,5903,40211,161Pamir (Academy of Sciences Range)Muztagh AtaTajikistan
57Saser Kangri III7,49524,5908352,740Saser KarakoramSaser Kangri IIndia
58Noshaq7,49224,5802,0246,640Hindu KushTirich MirAfghanistan, Pakistan
59Pumari Chhish7,49224,5808842,900Hispar KarakoramKhunyang ChhishPakistan
60Passu Sar7,47624,5286472,123Batura KarakoramBatura SarPakistan
61Yukshin Gardan Sar7,46924,5051,3744,508Hispar KarakoramPumari ChhishPakistan
62Teram Kangri I7,46224,4821,7035,587Siachen KarakoramGasherbrum IChina, India
63Jongsong Peak7,46224,4821,2984,259Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, China, Nepal
64Malubiting7,45824,4692,1937,195Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramRakaposhiPakistan
65Gangapurna7,45524,4595631,847Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurna IIINepal
66Jengish Chokusu, Tömür, Pik Pobedy7,43924,4064,14813,609Tian ShanIsmail Samani PeakKyrgyzstan, China
67Sunanda Devi, Nanda Devi East7,43424,390229751Garhwal HimalayaNanda DeviIndia
68K127,42824,3701,9786,490Saltoro KarakoramSaltoro KangriIndia, Pakistan
69Yangra, Ganesh I7,42224,3502,3527,717Ganesh HimalayaShishapangmaChina, Nepal
70Sia Kangri7,42224,3506422,106Siachen KarakoramGasherbrum IPakistan, China
71Momhil Sar7,41424,3249072,976Hispar KarakoramTrivorPakistan
72Kabru N7,41224,3187202,360Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, Nepal
73Skil Brum7,41024,3101,1523,780Baltoro KarakoramK2Pakistan
74Haramosh Peak7,40924,3082,2777,470Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramMalubitingPakistan
75Istor-o-Nal7,40324,2881,0433,422Hindu KushNoshaqPakistan
76Ghent Kangri7,40124,2811,4934,898Saltoro KarakoramSaltoro KangriIndia, Pakistan
77Ultar7,38824,2396882,257Batura KarakoramShisparePakistan
78Rimo I7,38524,2291,4284,685Rimo KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia
79Churen Himal7,38524,2296502,130Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
80Teram Kangri III7,38224,2195201,710Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia, China
81Sherpi Kangri7,38024,2101,3204,330Saltoro KarakoramGhent KangriIndia, Pakistan
82Labuche Kang7,36724,1701,9576,421Labuche HimalayaCho OyuChina
83Kirat Chuli7,36224,1541,1683,832Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaNepal, India
84Abi Gamin7,35524,131217712Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia, China
85Gimmigela Chuli, The Twins7,35024,1104321,417Kangchenjunga HimalayaKangchenjungaIndia, Nepal
86Nangpai Gosum7,35024,1104271,401Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuNepal, China
87Saraghrar7,34924,1111,9796,493Hindu KushNoshaqPakistan
88Talung7,34924,1113661,201Kangchenjunga HimalayaKabruNepal, India
89Jomolhari, Chomo Lhari7,32624,0352,3417,680Jomolhari HimalayaGangkhar PuensumBhutan, China
90Chamlang7,32124,0191,2414,072Mahalangur HimalayaLhotseNepal
91Chongtar7,31523,9991,2954,249Baltoro KarakoramSkil BrumChina
92Baltoro Kangri7,31223,9901,1403,740Masherbrum KarakoramChogolisaPakistan
93Siguang Ri7,30923,9806692,195Mahalangur HimalayaCho OyuChina
94The Crown, Huang Guan Shan7,29523,9341,9196,296Yengisogat KarakoramSkil Brum (K2)China
95Gyala Peri7,29423,9302,9429,652Assam HimalayaMount EverestChina
96Porong Ri7,29223,9245121,680Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaChina
97Baintha Brakk, The Ogre7,28523,9011,8916,204Panmah KarakoramKanjut SarPakistan
98Yutmaru Sar7,28323,8946802,230Hispar KarakoramYukshin Gardan SarPakistan
99K6, Baltistan Peak7,28223,8911,9626,437Masherbrum KarakoramChogolisaPakistan
100Kangpenqing, Gang Benchhen7,28123,8881,3454,413Baiku HimalayaShishapangmaChina
101Muztagh Tower7,27623,8711,7105,610Baltoro KarakoramSkil BrumPakistan, China
102Mana Peak7,27223,8587322,402Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia
103Dhaulagiri VI7,26823,8454881,601Dhaulagiri HimalayaDhaulagiri IVNepal
104Diran7,26623,8391,3294,360Rakaposhi-Haramosh KarakoramMalubitingPakistan
105Labuche Kang III, Labuche Kang East7,25023,7905701,870Labuche HimalayaLabuche HimilayaChina
106Putha Hiunchuli7,24623,7731,1513,776Dhaulagiri HimalayaChuren HimalNepal
107Apsarasas Kangri7,24523,7706071,991Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIndia, China
108Mukut Parbat7,24223,7606832,241Garhwal HimalayaKametIndia, China
109Rimo III7,23323,7306132,011Rimo KarakoramRimo IIndia
110Langtang Lirung7,22723,7111,5345,033Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaNepal
111Karjiang7,22123,6918952,936Kula Kangri HimalayaKula KangriChina
112Annapurna Dakshin (Annapurna South)7,21923,6847692,523Annapurna HimalayaAnnapurnaNepal
113Khartaphu7,21323,6657122,336Mahalangur HimalayaMount EverestChina
114Tongshanjiabu7,20723,6451,7575,764Lunana HimalayaGangkhar PuensumBhutan, China
115Malangutti Sar7,20723,6455071,663Hispar KarakoramDistaghil SarPakistan
116Noijin Kangsang, Norin Kang7,20623,6422,1607,090Nagarze HimalayaGangkhar PuensumChina
117Langtang Ri7,20523,6386652,182Langtang HimalayaShishapangmaNepal, China
118Kangphu Kang, Shimokangri7,20423,6351,2444,081Lunana HimalayaTongshanjiabuBhutan, China
119Singhi Kangri7,20223,6297302,400Siachen KarakoramTeram Kangri IIIIndia, China
120Lupghar Sar7,20023,6007302,400Hispar KarakoramMomhil SarPakistan

List of Deserts in the World by Area

Deserts, with their extreme environments, have always fascinated humanity. These vast, arid landscapes cover significant portions of our planet, offering unique ecosystems, breathtaking natural beauty, and challenges to the resilience of life. Contrary to the common perception of deserts as endless sands, they can also be cold, rocky, and rich in biodiversity. Here, we journey across the globe to discover the largest deserts in the world by area, each with its own story and ecological significance.

The Antarctic Desert

Covering an area of about 14 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles), the Antarctic Desert encompasses the entire continent of Antarctica. It is the largest desert in the world, characterized by its extreme cold, with temperatures that can drop below -60°C (-76°F). Despite its icy landscape, the Antarctic Desert is considered a desert due to its very low humidity and precipitation, making it an incredibly dry area.

The Arctic Desert

Spanning approximately 13.9 million square kilometers (5.4 million square miles), the Arctic Desert includes parts of Canada, Greenland, Russia, Alaska (USA), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Like Antarctica, the Arctic is a cold desert, with long, harsh winters and short, cool summers. Its unique ecosystem supports a variety of wildlife adapted to cold environments, including polar bears, Arctic foxes, and numerous bird species.

The Sahara Desert

The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world, covering around 9.2 million square kilometers (3.6 million square miles) across several countries in North Africa, including Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan, and Tunisia. Known for its iconic sand dunes, the Sahara is also home to mountain ranges, rock formations, and sparse oases, supporting life forms adapted to its harsh conditions.

The Arabian Desert

Occupying approximately 2.3 million square kilometers (890,000 square miles), the Arabian Desert spreads across several countries in the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, and Jordan. It features vast sand seas, rocky plateaus, and the world's largest continuous sand desert, the Rub' al Khali or "Empty Quarter." The Arabian Desert is known for its extreme heat, scarce water, and unique wildlife.

The Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert covers about 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles), making it one of the largest deserts in Asia. It stretches across northern China and southern Mongolia. Unlike many other large deserts, the Gobi is a cold desert, with temperatures that can swing from extreme heat in summer to bitter cold in winter. The Gobi is known for its unique landscapes, including sand dunes, mountains, and grasslands, and its history as part of the Silk Road.

The Kalahari Desert

Extending over 900,000 square kilometers (about 350,000 square miles), the Kalahari Desert spans parts of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Though it receives more rainfall than a typical desert, it has vast expanses of sandy soil that cannot sustain permanent surface water. The Kalahari is renowned for its stunning red sand dunes and diverse wildlife, including the famous meerkats, lions, and African elephants.

The Significance of Deserts

Deserts are more than just barren landscapes; they are vital ecosystems that play significant roles in the Earth's climate and biodiversity. They offer unique habitats for plants and animals specially adapted to survive in extreme conditions. Deserts are also of great interest to scientists, who study their geology, archaeology, and biology to gain insights into environmental change and conservation.

The world's largest deserts by area are diverse ecosystems, each with its own unique climate, landscapes, and life forms. From the icy expanses of the Antarctic and Arctic to the hot sands of the Sahara and the varied terrains of the Gobi and Kalahari, these vast deserts remind us of the Earth's incredible natural diversity and the importance of preserving these unique environments for future generations.

RankDesert NameTypeArea (km2)Area (sq mi)LocationCountry(s)
1Antarctic DesertPolar ice and tundra14,200,0005,482,651Antarctica-
2Arctic DesertPolar ice and tundra13,900,0005,366,820Eastern Europe, Northern America, Northern Asia, Northern EuropeUnited States, Canada, Greenland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Jan Mayen, Russia, Svalbard, and Sweden
3Sahara DesertSubtropical9,200,0003,552,140Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Western AfricaAlgeria, Western Sahara, Chad, Eritrea, Egypt, Mali, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Tunisia, and Sudan
4Great AustralianSubtropical2,700,0001,042,476AustraliaAustralia
5Arabian DesertSubtropical2,330,000899,618Western AsiaYemen, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia
6Gobi DesertCold winter1,295,000500,002Eastern AsiaChina, and Mongolia
7Kalahari DesertSubtropical900,000347,492Southern AfricaSouth Africa, Botswana, and Namibia
8Patagonian DesertCold winter673,000259,847South AmericaArgentina
9Syrian DesertSubtropical500,000193,051Western AsiaIraq, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia
10Great BasinCold winter492,098190,000Northern AmericaUnited States
11Chihuahuan DesertSubtropical453,248175,000Northern AmericaUnited States, and Mexico
12Karakum DesertCold winter350,000135,136Central AsiaTurkmenistan
13Great VictoriaSubtropical348,750134,653Western Australia, South AustraliaAustralia
14Colorado PlateauCold winter337,000130,116Northern AmericaUnited States
15Sonoran DesertSubtropical310,000119,692Central America, Northern AmericaUnited States and Mexico
16Kyzylkum DesertCold winter300,000115,831Central AsiaUzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan
17Taklamakan DesertCold winter270,000104,248Eastern AsiaChina
18Ogden DesertSubtropical256,00098,842Eastern AfricaEthiopia, Somaliland, and Somalia
19Thar DesertSubtropical238,25477,220Southern AsiaPakistan and India
20Puntland DesertSubtropical200,00077,220Eastern AfricaSomalia
21Ustyurt PlateauTemperate200,00077,220Central AsiaKazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan
22Guban DesertSubtropical175,00067,568Eastern AfricaSomalia / Somaliland
23Namib DesertCool coastal160,00061,776Middle Africa, Southern AfricaAngola, South Africa, and Namibia
24Dasht-e MargoSubtropical150,00057,915Southern AsiaAfghanistan
25Registan DesertSubtropical146,00056,371Southern AsiaAfghanistan
26Atacama DesertMild coastal140,00054,054South AmericaPeru and Chile
27Danakil DesertSubtropical137,00052,896Eastern AfricaDjibouti, Ethiopia, and Eritrea
28Mojave DesertSubtropical124,00047,877Northern AmericaUnited States
29Chalbi DesertSubtropical100,00038,610Eastern AfricaKenya
30Columbia BasinCold winter83,13932,100Northern AmericaUnited States and Canada
31Dasht-e KavirSubtropical77,00029,730Southern AsiaIran
32Ferlo DesertSubtropical70,00027,027Western AfricaSenegal
33Ladakh DesertCold winter59,14622,836Southern AsiaIndia
34Dasht-e LutSubtropical52,00020,077Southern AsiaIran

History of the World


In Western cultures, world history is often broken down into three main parts: ancient times, the medieval era, and modern times. This way of splitting up history isn't as clear in Arabic and Asian accounts of history. Some scholars, like Karl Jaspers, have talked about an "Axial Age" that lines up with what Western cultures call "classical antiquity." Jaspers also suggested a different way to look at history as a whole, dividing it into prehistory, history, and planetary history. According to him, the "history" part is actually a short phase between two much longer time periods.

Ancient history

Ancient history is the time from when people first started writing until around AD 650. This is about 5,000 years, starting with writing in Sumeria. This period includes all the places where people lived from 3000 BC to AD 650. People often break down ancient history into three parts: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. Recorded history is usually said to start with the Bronze Age. The timing of these three ages is different depending on where you are in the world.

During ancient history, the number of people in the world grew a lot because of the Neolithic Revolution, which was a big change in how people lived and farmed. In 10,000 BC, there were about 2 million people in the world. By 3,000 BC, that number grew to 45 million. In 1000 BC, it was 72 million, and by AD 500, it reached 209 million. So, in about 10,500 years, the world's population grew by 100 times.

Stone Age

The Stone Age is a very old time when people mostly used stone to make tools. This time lasted about 3.4 million years and ended between 4,000 BC and 2,000 BC when people started working with metal. People did use some simple metals like gold and copper for decorations during the Stone Age, but the age really ended when people started melting copper to make things. This happened around 3,000 BC in Western Asia, and then the Bronze Age began. In the Stone Age, people made different kinds of tools. Not just modern humans, but also earlier types of humans and maybe even some older relatives of humans. Some tools made of bone have also been found, but stone tools last longer so we find more of those. The Stone Age has different parts based on the kinds of stone tools people were using. The Stone Age is the first part of a system that archaeologists use to talk about human history. This system has three main parts: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. The Stone Age itself is often broken into three smaller parts: the Paleolithic era, which is the oldest and most basic; the Mesolithic era, which is a middle period with better tools; and the Neolithic era, which is the newest. During the Neolithic era, people started farming and living in towns instead of just hunting and gathering. This time also overlaps with another period called the Chalcolithic era, which comes right before the Bronze Age.

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time in history from about 3300 BC to 1200 BC when people started using bronze to make things. This time comes after the Stone Age and is the second part in a system that divides ancient history into three main parts: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

People in the Bronze Age made bronze by melting copper and mixing it with other metals like tin. Bronze was better than other metals they had, making it easier for them to build things and improve their lives. Iron was also around, but it was harder to melt and work with, so people didn't use it much until later.

Bronze was not easy to find everywhere, so some places had to trade for it. The Bronze Age usually comes after a time called the Neolithic period, and sometimes there's a middle period called the Chalcolithic.

Not all places in the Bronze Age had writing, but some like Mesopotamia and Egypt did. They created early forms of writing like cuneiform and hieroglyphs.

The Bronze Age ended around the 12th century BC with a big collapse that affected many places, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. This was a tough time for many cultures and led to a period known as the Greek Dark Ages.

Iron Age

The Iron Age is the last part of the three Metal Ages, coming after the Copper and Bronze Ages. It's also seen as the last phase in a three-age system that starts with Prehistory, moves to Protohistory, and ends with the Iron Age. Before this, there was the Stone Age, which is broken down into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic ages. These ideas were first used to talk about Europe and the Ancient Near East but now apply to other old parts of the world too.

Iron from meteorites has been used for a long time, but the Iron Age is defined as the time when people started making iron and steel tools and weapons, replacing bronze ones. This change happened at different times in different places.

In places like Anatolia, the Caucasus, or Southeast Europe, the Iron Age began around 1300 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it started at the same time as the end of the Bronze Age, in the 12th century BC. The technology then moved to other parts of the Mediterranean and South Asia between the 12th and 11th centuries BC. It reached Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and Central Europe a bit later, and Northern Europe around the 5th century BC.

In India, the Iron Age is said to start with a culture known for making iron and having Painted Grey Ware, around the 15th century BC, and goes up to the time of Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. The term "Iron Age" is used less often for Asia and Africa. In Africa, some areas moved directly from using stone to iron, possibly as early as 2000 BC.

The idea that the Iron Age ends when written history begins doesn't work everywhere. For example, in China, people were writing before they started using iron. In the Ancient Near East, the starting of the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC is often used as the end date for the Iron Age. In Central and Western Europe, it's the Roman conquests in the 1st century BC. In Scandinavia, it ends around AD 800 with the start of the Viking Age.

Medieval (Post-classical History)

In world history, the time from around 500 CE to 1500 CE is often called post-classical history. This time is also known by other names like the medieval era or the pre-modern era. During this period, civilizations grew bigger in terms of land and trade networks between different civilizations also developed.

In Asia, Islam spread quickly and started the Islamic Golden Age. This led to advances in science and more trade between Asia, Africa, and Europe. In East Asia, Imperial China became very powerful and had a big influence on places like Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Buddhism and a new form of Confucianism also became popular in East Asia. Gunpowder was invented in China during this time. The Mongol Empire helped make trade between Europe and Asia safer and more stable.

The world's population also changed a lot during this time. It doubled from about 210 million people in 500 CE to 461 million in 1500 CE. While the population mostly grew, there were some times when it dropped because of things like diseases or invasions. For example, the Plague of Justinian, the Mongol invasions, and the Black Death caused the population to go down temporarily.

Modern Era

The modern era is the time in human history that comes after the Middle Ages, which ended around 1500 AD, and goes up to today. This way of looking at history is mostly used for European and Western history.

The modern era can be broken down into smaller parts:

1. The early modern period is from around 1500 to 1800 AD. This time saw big changes in thinking, politics, and economics. It included the Age of Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, and revolutions in places like America and France.

2.The late modern period starts around 1800, after the big revolutions of the 18th century. This period is about the shift from empires to nations, especially after World War I and World War II.

3. Contemporary history is the time after World War II in 1945 and goes up to today. Some people think of it as part of the late modern period, while others see it as a separate time.

During the modern era, there have been big developments in science, politics, war, and technology. This time has also been about exploring new places and globalization. European countries and later their colonies started to have a lot of influence around the world.

By the late 19th and early 20th century, modern ways of thinking and doing things became very popular, not just in Western Europe and North America but almost everywhere. This era has a lot to do with ideas like individualism, capitalism, and the growth of cities. It also believes in the good that can come from technology and political changes.

However, this time has also had its problems, like big wars and the breakdown of traditional beliefs. These issues have led to criticisms of modern life. For example, postmodernism questions the idea that progress is always good. Also, the way Western Europe and North America have dominated other places has been criticized.

Geography of the World

The Earth is a planet of incredible diversity and complexity, with a geography that shapes the lives of all its inhabitants. From towering mountains and vast deserts to deep oceans and lush rainforests, the physical features of the Earth are both varied and fascinating. This page explores the fundamental aspects of our world's geography, offering insights into the landforms, climates, and ecosystems that make our planet unique.

Continents and Oceans

The Earth's surface is divided into seven continents: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, and South America. These landmasses are surrounded by five major oceans: the Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Each continent and ocean has its own distinctive characteristics, landscapes, and marine environments.

Mountains, Plains, and Deserts

The world's geography is marked by stunning mountain ranges such as the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes in South America, and the Rockies in North America. Mountains influence climate and weather patterns and are crucial sources of water and biodiversity.

Plains and valleys offer fertile soils that are vital for agriculture and human settlement. The great plains of North America, the steppes of Central Asia, and the savannas of Africa are examples of these productive landscapes.

Deserts, such as the Sahara in Africa, the Arabian in the Middle East, and the Gobi in Asia, are defined by their arid conditions, receiving little precipitation. Despite their harsh environments, deserts are home to a variety of life adapted to survive with minimal water.

Rivers and Lakes

Rivers are the lifelines of the Earth's landscapes, providing water for drinking, agriculture, and transportation. The Amazon in South America, the Nile in Africa, and the Mississippi in North America are among the longest rivers, each playing a central role in the ecosystems and human societies around them.

Lakes, from the vast freshwater Great Lakes in North America to the saltwater Caspian Sea in Asia, are important sources of freshwater. They support diverse ecosystems and are key for human use and recreation.

Forests and Rainforests

Forests cover about 31% of the Earth's land area, from the boreal forests in the Arctic regions to the temperate forests found in many parts of the world. Tropical rainforests, such as the Amazon and the Congo Basin, are incredibly rich in biodiversity, housing a significant portion of the Earth's plant and animal species.

Climate and Weather

The geography of our planet is intrinsically linked to its climate, which varies from the intense heat of the equatorial regions to the freezing cold of the polar areas. Climate influences the distribution of ecosystems and biodiversity and affects human activities and settlement patterns.

Human Geography

Human geography examines the relationship between people and their environments. It explores how human culture, activities, and settlement patterns are influenced by the physical geography of the Earth. From the densely populated cities of Asia and Europe to the sparsely inhabited expanses of the Sahara and the Arctic, human beings have adapted to a wide range of geographical conditions.

Conservation and Sustainability

As we explore and understand the geography of our world, we also recognize the importance of conserving its natural beauty and resources. Sustainable management of the Earth's ecosystems and responsible stewardship of its natural resources are essential for preserving the planet for future generations.

The geography of the world is a testament to the dynamic and ever-changing nature of the Earth. It shapes our environments, influences cultures, and supports life in all its diversity. By studying and appreciating the world's geography, we gain a deeper understanding of our planet and our place within it, inspiring us to protect and cherish this remarkable world we call home.

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