New South Wales Map

Explore map of New South Wales, it is a state in the southeastern part of Australia. It features both coastal mountains and inland plateaus. The Pacific Ocean lies to its east, and it shares borders with Victoria in the south, South Australia in the west, and Queensland in the north. The state also encompasses Lord Howe Island, which is 360 miles (580 km) east of mainland Australia. Sydney, Australia's biggest city, is the capital of New South Wales.

New South Wales Map

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About New South Wales Map

Explore New South Wales Australia map to know about this Australian state which is located on the east coast of Australia.

New South Wales

New South Wales (NSW), Australia’s oldest and most populous state, offers a unique blend of vibrant city life, captivating rural landscapes, and breathtaking coastal views. Home to the iconic city of Sydney, NSW is renowned for its cultural diversity, historic significance, and economic vitality. This page provides an in-depth look at New South Wales, covering its geography, economy, attractions, and lifestyle, showcasing what makes this state a pivotal part of Australia.


New South Wales is situated on the southeastern coast of Australia, encompassing an area of about 800,000 square kilometers. Its diverse geography ranges from the snow-capped peaks of the Australian Alps in the south to the lush rainforests of the north, and from the arid western plains to the vibrant coastal cities. The state is bordered by Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, and the Tasman Sea to the east.


The climate in NSW varies widely due to its vast geography. The coastal regions experience a temperate climate with warm summers and mild winters, making them ideal for beachgoers and outdoor enthusiasts. The western plains see more extreme temperatures, with hot summers and cold winters, while the alpine regions offer cool summer retreats and winter snow sports.


New South Wales boasts a dynamic and diversified economy, being the largest in Australia. Key sectors include finance, manufacturing, mining, and agriculture. Sydney, as a global financial hub, hosts numerous multinational corporations and banks. The state's rich natural resources, such as coal and wool, contribute significantly to its exports. Agriculture plays a vital role in rural NSW, with the production of wheat, cotton, and various fruits and vegetables supporting both the domestic and international markets.

Attractions and Lifestyle

NSW is home to some of Australia's most iconic landmarks and attractions:

Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge

Symbolizing Australia's architectural innovation, these landmarks offer spectacular views and cultural experiences.

Blue Mountains

Just a short drive from Sydney, this World Heritage-listed area is known for its dramatic scenery, bushwalking trails, and quaint towns.

Hunter Valley

Australia’s oldest wine region offers exquisite wine tasting tours, gourmet food, and beautiful countryside views.

Byron Bay

Famous for its laid-back lifestyle, stunning beaches, and surf culture.

Royal National Park

Offers diverse natural landscapes, including coastal cliffs, eucalyptus bushlands, and serene beaches.

Culture and Community

NSW is a melting pot of cultures, reflected in its festivals, cuisine, and arts scene. The state celebrates its Indigenous heritage and multicultural community through various cultural events and institutions. Sydney’s vibrant arts scene, including theaters, galleries, and live music, contributes to the state’s cultural richness.

Education and Research

New South Wales is an educational powerhouse, home to several of Australia's leading universities and research institutions, including the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales. These institutions attract students from across the globe, fostering innovation and contributing to the state's knowledge-based economy.

New South Wales combines natural beauty, economic strength, and cultural diversity, making it a compelling destination for visitors and a wonderful place to live for its residents. From the bustling streets of Sydney to the tranquil beauty of its rural landscapes and coastal retreats, NSW offers a rich and varied experience that encapsulates the best of Australia. Whether you’re drawn to the allure of city life, the tranquility of the countryside, or the adventure of the great outdoors, New South Wales has something for everyone.

History of New South Wales

New South Wales (NSW), Australia's most populous state, has a rich and complex history that has shaped its development from ancient Indigenous cultures to its status as a vibrant and diverse modern society. This page explores the key historical events and influences that have contributed to the making of New South Wales.

Indigenous Heritage

Long before European settlement, NSW was inhabited by Indigenous Australian peoples, each with their own distinct cultures, languages, and connection to the land. These communities have lived in harmony with the Australian landscape for tens of thousands of years, developing a deep spiritual relationship with their environment. Indigenous heritage in NSW is rich and diverse, with rock paintings, carvings, and cultural sites scattered throughout the state, telling the stories of its first peoples.

European Exploration and Settlement

The modern history of NSW began in 1770 when British explorer Captain James Cook charted the eastern coast of Australia and claimed the region for Great Britain. The First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson (now Sydney Harbour) in 1788, establishing the first European settlement in Australia as a penal colony. This marked the beginning of British colonization in NSW, which significantly impacted the Indigenous populations through disease, displacement, and conflict.

Expansion and Development

Throughout the 19th century, NSW underwent rapid expansion and development. Settlers moved beyond the Sydney region, establishing agricultural and pastoral industries that became the backbone of the colony's economy. The discovery of gold in the 1850s near Bathurst and elsewhere led to a gold rush, attracting thousands of people from around the world and contributing to the colony's wealth and growth.

Federation and Statehood

In 1901, NSW became a founding state of the Commonwealth of Australia, transitioning from a British colony to a state within a federated nation. This marked a new chapter in NSW's history, as it played a central role in the development of Australian national identity, governance, and economy.

The 20th Century to Present

The 20th century saw NSW become an industrial and economic powerhouse, with Sydney emerging as a major global city. Post-World War II migration transformed the state into a culturally diverse society, with people from all over the world making NSW their home. The state has hosted significant international events, including the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, showcasing its vibrant culture and modern achievements.

Challenges and Achievements

NSW's history is also marked by challenges, including environmental issues, economic recessions, and social inequalities. However, the resilience and innovation of its people have seen the state overcome these obstacles and continue to thrive. Today, NSW is known for its dynamic economy, cultural diversity, and as a leader in education, the arts, and technology.

The history of New South Wales is a story of transformation and growth, from the ancient cultures of its Indigenous peoples to the bustling, diverse society it is today. Its historical journey is integral to understanding the state's identity and its place in Australia and the world. As NSW looks to the future, it carries with it the lessons and legacies of its past, continuing to evolve and contribute to the broader narrative of Australia.

Demographics of New South Wales

New South Wales (NSW), the most populous state in Australia, is a melting pot of cultures, ages, and lifestyles. Its dynamic demographic composition is a testament to the state's rich history, vibrant economy, and welcoming society. This page provides a comprehensive overview of the demographics of New South Wales, illustrating the diverse tapestry of people who call this state their home.

Population Size and Growth

NSW is home to over 8 million people, accounting for approximately 32% of Australia's total population. The state's population is concentrated mainly in and around Sydney, the state capital, which is Australia's largest city. Population growth in NSW is driven by a combination of natural increase (births minus deaths) and migration, including both international arrivals and people moving from other parts of Australia.

Age Distribution

The demographic profile of NSW shows a broad age distribution, with a median age in the early to mid-30s. The state has a significant proportion of young adults, particularly in urban areas where educational and employment opportunities attract younger populations. NSW also has a growing number of elderly residents, reflecting national trends towards an aging population, with specific regions becoming popular retirement destinations due to their lifestyle and climate.

Cultural Diversity

One of the most distinctive features of NSW's demographics is its cultural and ethnic diversity. Nearly 30% of the state's residents were born overseas, with significant communities from China, India, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand, among others. This diversity enriches the state's social fabric, evident in the multitude of languages spoken at home, diverse religious practices, and a wide array of cultural festivals and culinary offerings throughout the year.

Indigenous Population

NSW has a significant Indigenous population, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, with deep-rooted histories and cultures that predate European settlement by tens of thousands of years. Indigenous communities in NSW are an integral part of the state's identity, contributing to its cultural diversity and historical richness.

Education and Employment

NSW boasts high levels of education, with a large portion of the population holding tertiary qualifications, reflecting the state's strong education system and prestigious universities. The employment landscape is diverse, with key industries including finance, health care, education, construction, and professional services. Sydney, as a global city, offers a dynamic job market that attracts talent from across the world.

Urban and Regional Distribution

While Sydney dominates as the urban center, NSW's population is also spread across regional and rural areas, from the coastal cities of Newcastle and Wollongong to inland towns in the Riverina and New England regions. These areas offer distinct lifestyles and contribute to the state's economic and social diversity, with agriculture, mining, and tourism being prominent sectors outside the metropolitan area.

The demographics of New South Wales reflect a state that is both vibrant and diverse. Its population's variety in age, culture, and lifestyle is a strength, driving economic growth and fostering a dynamic community life. From the bustling streets of Sydney to the serene landscapes of its rural towns, NSW is a state that thrives on its diversity, embodying the multicultural and inclusive spirit of Australia.

Population Statistics Cities and Towns

NSW RankStatistical Area Level 2Population at June 2014Population Density per km2)
1Greater Sydney4,940,628397
2Newcastle and Lake Macquarie368,131423
4Hunter Valley excluding Newcastle264,08712
5Richmond Tweed242,11624
6Capital region220,9444
7Mid North Coast212,78711
8Central West209,8503
9New England and North West186,2622
11Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven146,38822
12Coffs Harbour-Grafton136,41810
13Far West and Orana119,7420
TotalNew South Wales7,518,47213

Population of Urban Areas

NSW RankSignificant Urban AreaPopulation (June 2018 / 2021 Census)10-Year Growth RateAustralia rank
-Gold Coast - Tweed Heads654,073-6
2Newcastle - Maitland505,489117
3Gosford (Central Coast)338,567209
-Albury - Wodonga97,2741520
5Coffs Harbour71,8221225
6Wagga Wagga67,609728
8Port Macquarie47,9731633
11Bowral - Mittagong39,8871437
13Nowra - Bomaderry37,4201442
16Nelson Bay28,0511350
17Tweed Heads-Tweed Heads South   
20Morisset - Cooranbong25,3091557
23Forster - Tuncurry21,159765
25St Georges Basin - Sanctuary Point19,2511968
27Camden Haven17,8351273
28Broken Hill17,734-9.574
29Batemans Bay16,485478
TotalNew South Wales7,480,22818-

Ancestry and Immigration

During the 2021 census in New South Wales, the most frequently reported ancestries were:

The 2021 census also revealed that 2,794,666 people, or 34.6% of the state's population, were born overseas. In fact, only 43.7% of people in New South Wales had both parents born in Australia.

Additionally, 3.4% of the population, which amounts to 278,043 individuals, identified themselves as Indigenous Australians, including both Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

New Zealand118,527
South Korea53,046
South Africa42,347


The 2021 census revealed that in New South Wales, 29.5% of people speak a language other than English at home. The most common languages spoken are Mandarin (3.4%), Arabic (2.8%), Cantonese (1.8%), Vietnamese (1.5%), and Hindi (1.0%).


From the 2021 census, the most frequently reported religions and Christian denominations in New South Wales were Roman Catholicism (22.4%), Anglicanism (11.9%), and Islam (4.3%). Additionally, 32.8% of the population identified themselves as having no religion.

Economy of New South Wales

New South Wales (NSW) stands as a dynamic economic powerhouse within Australia, showcasing a diverse and resilient economy. As the most populous state, NSW plays a pivotal role in driving national economic growth, supported by its strategic location, vibrant cities, and diverse industries. This page offers an in-depth look into the economy of New South Wales, highlighting the key sectors, strengths, and contributions to both the state and the country.


NSW's economy is the largest in Australia, contributing significantly to the country's GDP. The state capital, Sydney, is a global financial hub, reflecting NSW's strong position in finance, professional services, and technology. Beyond the bustling urban centers, NSW's economy is also supported by robust agricultural, mining, and tourism sectors, demonstrating a balanced mix of industries.

Key Economic Sectors

Finance and Professional Services

NSW, particularly Sydney, is the center of Australia's finance industry, hosting banks, insurance companies, and investment firms. Professional services, including legal, accounting, and consulting firms, thrive in the state, supported by a skilled workforce and international connections.

Technology and Innovation

The state is at the forefront of technological innovation, with a booming tech industry encompassing startups, fintech, and digital services. Investment in research and development, alongside partnerships between academia and industry, fuels technological advancements and economic growth.


NSW's diverse climate and fertile lands support a wide range of agricultural activities. Key products include wheat, cotton, fruits, vegetables, and livestock, with the state being a major supplier to both domestic and international markets.


Rich in natural resources, NSW extracts coal, minerals, and natural gas, contributing significantly to its export earnings. The mining sector provides substantial employment opportunities and supports related industries.


Blessed with iconic attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, beautiful beaches, and national parks, NSW is a top destination for both domestic and international tourists. Tourism boosts local economies, particularly in regional areas, and supports a wide range of businesses.

Construction and Real Estate:

The construction sector, driven by both residential and infrastructure projects, plays a crucial role in NSW's economy. Real estate, including commercial and residential properties, contributes to economic activity and employment.

Education and Research:

NSW is a leader in education and research, home to prestigious universities and institutions that attract students from around the globe. The education sector is a significant contributor to the state's economy, fostering innovation and skilled labor.

Challenges and Opportunities

NSW faces several challenges, including managing population growth, environmental sustainability, and economic inequality. However, these challenges also present opportunities for innovation in areas such as renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, and smart infrastructure, ensuring the state's economy remains resilient and competitive.

The economy of New South Wales is diverse, dynamic, and integral to Australia's overall prosperity. With its blend of industries, from finance and technology to agriculture and tourism, NSW demonstrates the strength of a balanced and innovative economy. Looking forward, NSW is well-positioned to continue its economic leadership, driving forward with innovation, sustainability, and inclusivity at the heart of its economic strategy.