South Australia Map

Explore map of South Australia, South Australia covers approximately one-eighth of Australia's total land area, making it the fourth largest of the country's eight states and territories. In terms of population, it ranks fifth, with its residents accounting for less than 8 percent of Australia's total population.

South Australia Map

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About South Australia Map

Explore map of South Australia, it is an Australian state in the southern central region of Australia.

South Australia

South Australia, a captivating state located in the southern central part of the country, is renowned for its diverse landscapes, vibrant culture, and rich history. From the rugged Outback to lush vineyards, pristine beaches to bustling urban centers, South Australia offers a unique blend of experiences for everyone.

Discover South Australia

Geography and Climate

South Australia's geography is incredibly varied. The state is home to the vast, arid landscapes of the Outback, the fertile soil of the wine-producing regions such as the Barossa Valley and Clare Valley, and the picturesque coastline along the Great Australian Bight. The state's climate varies from hot and dry in the interior to mild and wetter in the coastal areas, supporting a diverse range of flora and fauna.

Adelaide: The Heart of South Australia

Adelaide, the capital city, is celebrated for its culinary scene, with an array of dining options that showcase local produce. The city is also known for its international arts festivals, vibrant market life, beautiful parks, and a thriving small-bar scene. Adelaide's grid layout surrounded by parklands and its blend of historic buildings with modern architecture make it a unique urban experience.

Natural Wonders

South Australia is a haven for nature lovers. Kangaroo Island, a short ferry ride from the mainland, offers wildlife encounters, with kangaroos, koalas, and a host of bird species, along with remarkable rock formations like Remarkable Rocks and Admirals Arch. The Flinders Ranges, the largest mountain range in South Australia, provides breathtaking landscapes and the chance to explore ancient geological sites.

World-Class Wine Regions

The state is internationally recognized for its wine production, with over 200 cellar doors to visit. Regions such as the Barossa Valley, McLaren Vale, and Coonawarra are just a few places where visitors can taste some of the world's best wines, learn about the winemaking process, and enjoy the scenic beauty of vineyard-covered hills.

Cultural Heritage

South Australia has a rich cultural heritage, with a blend of Indigenous and European history. The South Australian Museum and the Art Gallery of South Australia house extensive collections, showcasing Aboriginal art and culture as well as European works. The Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute offers insights into the art and culture of the First Australians.

Adventure and Activities

For those seeking adventure, South Australia offers activities ranging from cage diving with great white sharks in Port Lincoln to hiking in the national parks. The state's coastline is perfect for surfing, while its clear skies in the Outback offer some of the best stargazing opportunities.

Sustainable Living

South Australia is a leader in renewable energy, with a commitment to sustainability. This dedication is seen in the state's practices and policies aimed at preserving its natural environment and promoting a sustainable future for its residents and visitors.

South Australia is a state of contrasts, where ancient landscapes meet modern culture, and natural beauty coexists with urban charm. Whether you're exploring the natural wonders, enjoying the culinary delights, savoring world-class wines, or immersing yourself in the culture and history, South Australia offers a rich and rewarding experience that caters to all interests and ages.

History of South Australia

The history of South Australia is a vibrant tapestry that weaves together the stories of its Indigenous peoples, European settlers, and the land itself. This state, known for its diverse cultures and pioneering spirit, offers a unique perspective on Australia's development.

Indigenous Heritage

Before European settlement, South Australia was home to a rich tapestry of Indigenous Australian cultures, each with their own languages, traditions, and connection to the land. The Kaurna people, the traditional custodians of the Adelaide Plains, along with the Ngarrindjeri, Narungga, and Adnyamathanha peoples, among others, have lived in what is now South Australia for tens of thousands of years. Their deep spiritual and physical bond with their environment is reflected in their cultural practices, art, and storytelling.

European Exploration and Settlement

European exploration of South Australia began in the early 19th century. The region was officially proclaimed a British colony on December 28, 1836, at Glenelg North by Governor John Hindmarsh. Unlike other Australian colonies, South Australia was established as a free settlement, without convict transportation, and was financed and settled by the South Australian Company.

The establishment of the colony was planned with the idea of religious freedom and progressive political institutions. Early settlers faced numerous challenges, including conflicts with Indigenous peoples, disease, and financial difficulties. However, through determination and innovation, the colony began to prosper, particularly with the discovery of rich mineral resources.

Economic Development

The discovery of copper at Kapunda and Burra in the 1840s, followed by silver, lead, and zinc at Broken Hill, played a critical role in South Australia's economic development. The state became a hub for mining, which attracted immigrants from around the world and led to rapid population growth.

Agriculture also became a cornerstone of South Australia's economy. The development of wheat and wine industries, particularly in regions like the Barossa Valley, contributed significantly to the state's prosperity and global reputation for quality produce.

Social and Cultural Progress

South Australia has been a leader in social and political reform in Australia. It was the first Australian colony to grant universal suffrage to men in 1856 and became a pioneer in women's rights by enabling women to vote in 1894. The state has also been at the forefront of labor rights, educational innovation, and environmental conservation.

20th Century to Present

Throughout the 20th century, South Australia continued to grow and diversify. The establishment of the automotive and defense industries, along with continued development in agriculture and mining, drove economic and social progress. The state's capital, Adelaide, has become known for its educational institutions, arts festivals, and quality of life.

In recent decades, South Australia has embraced renewable energy, leading the country in wind and solar power generation. The state remains committed to innovation, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability.

The history of South Australia is a story of resilience, innovation, and diversity. From its Indigenous peoples, who have maintained a deep connection to the land for thousands of years, to the European settlers who built a free colony from the ground up, South Australia's history is a rich and evolving narrative. Today, it stands as a testament to the strength and spirit of its people, a state proud of its past and looking forward to its future.

Geography of South Australia

South Australia, the fourth-largest of Australia's states, boasts a remarkable diversity of landscapes, from arid deserts to lush wine regions and rugged coastlines. Its unique geography not only defines the natural beauty of the state but also shapes its economy, culture, and lifestyle.

Location and Borders

South Australia is centrally located in the southern part of the continent, bordered by Western Australia to the west, the Northern Territory to the north, Queensland to the northeast, New South Wales to the east, Victoria to the southeast, and the Great Australian Bight to the south. This strategic position makes it a key link between Australia's eastern and western regions.

Major Geographic Features

Flinders Ranges

The most prominent mountain range in South Australia, the Flinders Ranges offer stunning landscapes of ancient geological formations, deep gorges, and unique wildlife. It's a haven for hikers, photographers, and nature lovers.

Great Australian Bight

Characterized by its dramatic cliffs and pristine waters, the Great Australian Bight's coastline is one of the most unspoiled marine environments in the world, home to diverse marine life, including the southern right whale.

Lake Eyre Basin

Occupying a significant portion of the state's north, Lake Eyre (Kati Thanda) is Australia's largest salt lake and sits within one of the largest internal drainage systems in the world. It's known for its rare flooding events, which transform the landscape into a vibrant, life-sustaining habitat.

Nullarbor Plain:

Stretching across the border with Western Australia, the Nullarbor Plain is one of the world's largest limestone karst landscapes. Its seemingly endless, treeless horizon and the iconic cliffs overlooking the Great Australian Bight are a sight to behold.

Murray River

As Australia's longest river, the Murray River forms the southeastern border of South Australia with Victoria and New South Wales. It's vital for the state's agriculture, providing essential water for irrigation in the Riverland and Murraylands regions.


South Australia experiences a range of climate zones, from Mediterranean in the south, including Adelaide and the wine regions, to arid and semi-arid in the vast interior. This diversity allows for a wide variety of agriculture, from vineyards and fruit orchards to extensive pastoral leases in the outback.

Natural Resources

The state's geography has blessed it with rich natural resources, notably in the mining sector. South Australia is a major producer of opals, with Coober Pedy known as the opal capital of the world. It also has significant reserves of copper, iron ore, and uranium, among others.

Wine Regions

South Australia is renowned globally for its wine, with regions such as the Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, and McLaren Vale producing world-class wines. The geography and climate of these areas are perfectly suited to viticulture, contributing significantly to the state's economy and cultural identity.

Conservation and Natural Parks

South Australia is committed to conservation and environmental management, with numerous national parks and reserves protecting its unique landscapes and biodiversity. Notable examples include Kangaroo Island, with its untouched wilderness and wildlife, and the Coorong National Park, known for its lagoons, birdlife, and indigenous significance.

Urban Geography

Adelaide, the capital city, is situated on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the Mount Lofty Ranges. It's known for its planned grid layout surrounded by parklands, efficient infrastructure, and a blend of historic and modern architecture. The city is the cultural and economic hub of South Australia, hosting numerous festivals, arts events, and educational institutions.

South Australia's geography is as diverse as it is spectacular, offering everything from arid deserts to fertile wine regions and pristine coastlines. Its landscapes not only define the natural beauty of the state but also support a rich variety of lifestyles and economies. From exploring ancient mountain ranges to enjoying world-class wines, South Australia's geography makes it a unique and captivating part of the Australian continent.

Economy of South Australia

South Australia, the fourth-largest of Australia's states by area, plays a vital role in the nation's economy. With a diverse range of industries including agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and services, South Australia's economy is robust and multifaceted. This page offers an overview of the key sectors that contribute to the state's economic landscape, highlighting how they intertwine to support and drive growth.

Agriculture and Wine Production

Agriculture has long been a cornerstone of South Australia's economy. The state's varied climate and fertile lands make it ideal for a range of agricultural activities. South Australia is particularly renowned for its wine production, with regions such as the Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, and Coonawarra known worldwide for their high-quality wines. Apart from viticulture, the state also produces significant amounts of wheat, barley, and other grains, along with livestock, dairy products, and horticultural goods including fruit and vegetables.

Mining and Resources

Mining is another critical sector of South Australia's economy. The state is rich in minerals, including copper, iron ore, and uranium, contributing significantly to both the state and national economies. The Olympic Dam mine, one of the world's largest deposits of copper, uranium, and gold, is a notable example. Additionally, South Australia's resources sector encompasses renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar power, where the state is a national leader.


Manufacturing in South Australia has evolved over the years, focusing on high-tech and innovative industries. Defence, aerospace, and automotive are key areas, with the state playing a significant role in national defence projects and research. While traditional automotive manufacturing has decreased, the focus has shifted towards defence equipment and technology manufacturing, including submarines and warships. This sector benefits from South Australia's skilled workforce and technological capabilities.

Services Sector

The services sector, including health care, education, and tourism, is a major contributor to South Australia's economy. Adelaide, the state capital, is a hub for education and research, home to internationally recognized institutions like the University of Adelaide and the University of South Australia. Tourism is also a significant industry, with South Australia's natural landscapes, wildlife, and culinary experiences attracting visitors from around the globe. The state's commitment to arts and culture, exemplified by events like the Adelaide Festival and Fringe, further bolsters tourism.

Technology and Innovation

South Australia is increasingly becoming a center for technology and innovation. The state government's investment in tech startups, renewable energy projects, and digital infrastructure aims to foster innovation and attract investment. Adelaide's Lot Fourteen, hosting the Australian Space Agency, is a prime example of this focus, positioning South Australia at the forefront of the nation's space and innovation efforts.

The economy of South Australia is diverse and dynamic, characterized by its adaptability and forward-thinking approach. From its roots in agriculture and mining to its growth in manufacturing, services, and technology, South Australia continues to play a crucial role in Australia's economic development. The state's commitment to innovation, sustainability, and quality makes it an attractive place for business, investment, and living, contributing to a prosperous future for its residents and the nation as a whole.

Demographics of South Australia

South Australia, a state known for its vibrant culture, stunning landscapes, and innovative industries, is home to a diverse population that shapes its identity. The demographics of South Australia offer a snapshot of the people who live in this dynamic region, providing insights into their composition, cultures, and how they live together. This page delves into the key demographic characteristics of South Australia's population, including age distribution, cultural background, population growth, and urbanization.

Population Size and Growth

South Australia's population is over 1.7 million people, with the majority residing in the capital city, Adelaide. The state's population growth has been steady, driven by both natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) and net migration, including both international and interstate migration. South Australia's welcoming approach to new residents, including migrants and refugees, contributes to the state's cultural diversity and population growth.

Age Distribution

The population of South Australia has a median age slightly higher than the national average, reflecting a significant proportion of older adults. While this presents challenges in terms of healthcare and aged services, it also offers opportunities for industries and services tailored to this demographic. The state also has a vibrant youth population, supported by strong education systems and universities that attract students from within and outside Australia.

Cultural Diversity

South Australia prides itself on its multicultural society. A significant portion of the population was born overseas, with the United Kingdom, India, China, and Italy among the top countries of birth. This diversity enriches the state's cultural fabric, seen in its festivals, food, and community events. Indigenous Australians, including the Kaurna people of the Adelaide Plains and other groups, are an integral part of South Australia's social and cultural landscape, contributing to its rich heritage and identity.

Urban and Regional Populations

While Adelaide is the focal point of urbanization in South Australia, housing most of the state's population, regional areas play a crucial role in the state's identity and economy. Regions such as the Eyre Peninsula, the Limestone Coast, and the Barossa Valley are not only key to the agricultural and tourism sectors but also offer unique lifestyles and communities. The state government and local initiatives aim to support and develop these regions, ensuring balanced growth and opportunities across South Australia.

Language and Religion

English is the predominant language spoken in South Australian homes, but the state's multicultural makeup means that a wide array of languages are spoken, reflecting the diverse backgrounds of its residents. In terms of religion, there is a broad spectrum of beliefs, with Christianity being the most common, alongside growing numbers of people practicing Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and other religions, as well as a significant proportion of the population identifying as having no religion, mirroring national trends towards secularism.

Education and Employment

South Australians value education, with a network of public and private schools, vocational education and training institutions, and universities offering a wide range of learning opportunities. The state's employment landscape is diverse, with significant sectors including healthcare, social assistance, retail, manufacturing, and increasingly, technology and innovation-driven industries.

The demographics of South Australia paint a picture of a state that is diverse, aging, and urbanized, yet with a strong connection to its regional communities. The cultural diversity, bolstered by a history of immigration and a strong Indigenous heritage, enriches the state's social fabric. As South Australia continues to evolve, its people remain at the heart of its development, driving forward into a future that celebrates diversity, innovation, and community.

Ancestry and Immigration

In the 2016 census, the most reported ancestries in South Australia were: